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<>l H lU SINFSS 

IS ^()i H HI sim:ss 

FRUIT LANDS 

Large and Small MIocks 

A Price List, and full and accurate 

lnf..rmati.M. I'amphlets of the iamnus 

Kootenay Fruit - Crowing District. 

sent nu request. 



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Reference : Canadian Bank of Commerce, 2. Lombard Street 
London, E.G. ; or Nelson, B.C., Canada. 



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Do you Contemplate 
Locating in Hritish Columbia? 

H" s.., you should fan„fiari/.c yourself 
^Mth c.,nUi,i..ns in dinVrcit p<.rhons of 
tlic Province. Vou can secure reliable 
nHormation reftardin^ conditions in the 
K()()Ti:\.\v AM) lil.lNDXK^ 
DISTKICTS hy subscribing for and 
reading 

THE NELSON 
DAILY NEWS 

l>ay by day TUK NKWS tells of the 
pn.gress uhich is being made in these 
districts. Perusal , f i,,; eolumns regu- 
larly for a time will pn.vo interesting, 
at least, and may result greatly to your 
advantage. 

A Weekly Kdition also is published, containing a 
summary of the best matter from the DAILY XKVVS 
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NELSON . liKITlSH Cci.L mb,a 



t:ao)c»!( 



J. T. Bealby 

WILL ADVISE ON PURCHASE OF 

FRUIT LANDS 

IS 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 

i.ah(;k ok small tracts. 



REASONABLE TERMS. 

Nearly 20 YEARS* EXPERIENCE in 
GROWLNG FRUIT. 



WINNER OF NEARLY 300 PRIZES 
FOR FRUIT. 



NELSON, B.C. 

^^000(000000000000( 



J g'ag jH- 



I»Y TIIK SAMK AUTHOR 



FRUIT-RANCHING IN 
BRITISH COLUMBIA 

Large Crown 8vo Cloth, with 3, Page Illustration, 
from photograph! 

..,".'^"''' •")•,''"" hwf'l within recent years of the po„i. 

b.l.t.c» of Bnt.ah C.lumbia for fruit-growing. Mr t T 

Bealby ha. put these to the test, and he telU a sf.ry of 1 i: 
experience, with .uch frankness and fulness that t e 

volume W.I1 prove h.ghly serviceable to any who contc-, ,- 
plate try.ng the.r tortunes in the same region, 'ndeed, the 
story of hi, experience, is eminently calculated to induce 
others to .0 low his example. To any ,0 inclined hi, book 
will be mo,t useful, tor it is obviously an unvarnished tale 
of actual experiences."— iV(3/j«ra«. 



PUBLISH.-. BY A. ASU C. BLACK, 4 SUHO SULaReTI^;^^ 



HOW TO MAKE AN ORCHARD 
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 



^^i^^r*' 



AVBTEAULBIA 
CANADA : 
IHDIA . , . 



AGENTS 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

64 & M FIFTH AVHNUB, NEW YORK 
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

»o5 Flinders Lane, Melbourne 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY OF CANADA. LTD 
St. MARTIN'S House. 70 Bond Street, Toronto 

MACMILLAN i COMPANY. LTD. 
MACMILLAN BuiLOrUG. BOMBAY 
809 Bow BAZAAR STRBBT, CALCUTTA 



* 



*^^T^ 



HOW TO MAKE 
AN ORCHARD 

IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 

A HANDBOOK FOR BEGINNERS 



BY 



J. T. BEALBY, B.A. 

AUTHOR OF "FRUIT-RANCHING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA' 




LONDON 

ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK 

1912 







2i 



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W^^^^^M^^m 



NOTE 

PoBTiONS of tho matter in this book were 
originally contributed by mc to the Farmers' 
Advocate, but for their use here I have 
taken the opportunity of materially revising, 
supplementing, and expanding them. 

J. T. B. 

March, 1P12. 



vu 



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■PVPP 



CONTENTS 



rr^ 



CHAPTER 

I. CHOOSING THE LArTD - . . . 

n. SOIL— BOCKS— WATER— TEMBEK 
ni. IMPBOVED V. UiraiPBOVED LAND— PBICES OP LAND— 

BEQTTIBED .... 

IV. CLEABINO ..... 

V. INTEEMEDIATE CBOPS 
VI. VABIETIES TO PLANT 

Vn. PLANTING— METHODS AND PROCESSES 
Vni. CULTIVATION AND MANAGEMENT 
IX, PRUNING ..... 

X. SPRAYING — THINNING 
XI. INSECT PESTS— DISEASB3—BBMEDIE3 
Xn. IRRIGATION - . - . . 

Xm. MARKETING - • . . . 

XIV. GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE 
XV. CLIUATB — DOMESTIC DETAILS 

INDEX - . . . 



CAPITAL 



1 

8 

14 
22 
30 
36 
40 
45 
50 
56 
60 
64 
70 
76 
82 

86 



vm 



^-SS^J 



HOW TO MAKE AN ORCHARD 
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 



CHAPTER I 

CHOOSING THE LAND 

All present indications point to the apple as likely to be 
the mainstay and chief source of profit in the orchards 
of British Columbia. Accordingly, in these pages it is 
the apple which I have principally in mind. 

Need for Personal Inspection.— People, perfect 
strangers, write to me stating that they have bought 
fruit land in British Columbia, without ever having seen 
It, and without having any other description of it than 
the description furnished by the man or the company 
who IS selling to them. How unwise a step this is needs 
no emphasizing. But what does n-^d emphasizing is 
that It 18 especially foolish to buy h .vithout seeing it 
in British Columbia, because of the mountainous character 
of the country. Owing to the irregular nature of the 
surface, the soil is apt to vary a good deal, even within 
short distances. One acre may be perfectly ideal soil for 
frmt-growmg-red, sandy loam with a clay subsoil at a 
sufficient depth-while the next adjacent acre, or even 

1 



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2 CHOOSING THE LAND 

part of an aero, may consist of an accumulation of rock 
fragments ; or it may bo hardpan — that is, indurated 
and impervious scmi-cementcd clay— in which no living 
plant of any kind can exist ; or, again, it may he a 
bed of dry shingle or arid sand, equally alike useless for 
fruit-growing. Fruit land in any part of the world 
should be selected only after a personal inspection, or 
obtaining disinterested expert advice, and in Britisli 
Columbia this is especially imperative. 

Air DRAmAOE. — It is imperative, not only because of 
the varying character of the soil at short distances apart, 
but also because of other reasons arising out of the geo- 
graphical configuration of the surface. Orchard trees 
will not thrive unless the air is able to circulate freely 
amongst them. This is a condition which, in a moun- 
tainous country like British Columbia, whore the valleys 
are frequently narrow and often long, is a matter of the 
very utmost importance. Trees planted in such a position 
\\ill not grow and thrive anything like so well as trees 
planted in a more open situation, where the breezes 
of heaven have free, unhampered access to them. But 
the chief danger to fniit-trees planted in such " wind- 
still " localities becomes specially active on the frostv 
mornings of -pring. In such unduly shelf -wd spots 
the frost is apt to hang about the trees and cling to 
the tender, newly opened foliage, or even to the blossoms, 
until the sun's rays smite upon it and burn the young 
leaves or the blossoms irreparably. These "frost 
pockets," as they are called, must by all means be 
avoided. And the best way to avoid them is to select 
a situation for your urch.rd in which, owing to the con- 



1 



IMPORTANCE OF AIR DRAINAGE 3 

fonnation of tho surrounding country, a free circulation 
of the air will at all times prevail naturally. Air drainage 
.8 as essential to the foliage of fruit-trees as soil drainage 
IS to their roots. ^ 

The point I am endeavouring to elucidate may Ik- 
crystallized in the two following pieces of advice : ( 1) Don't 
make an orchard on the bottom of a valley or on a dead 
flat, and th.s last applies to a dead flat on a bench or 
other high ground equally as to a flat in the bottom of 
a valley. (2) Choose for your orchard land that lies on 
a gentle slope. The slope must not be too steep. Not that 
trees will not grow on a steep slope ; for they will, and do 
But It IS then not so easy to get at them to prune them 
spray them, cultivate them, and gather the fruit The 
objection to a slope which is too steep is that, when the 
snows begu. to melt in the spring, the water tends to 
wash or leach off the rich surface soil ; and this danger 
becomes accentuated after the wild surface vegetation 
has been removed by clearing and cultivation. Again 
1 the slope is too steep, you will fLnd it difficult-mavbe 
altogether impracticable-to give that amount of cultiVa- 
tion to j^ur fruit-trees which they require, unless, indeed 
your orchard is so small that . u are able to do all your 
cultivation by hand labour. .Ven a gentle slope, pro: 
vided the surrounding geographical features are not 
altogether adverse, will generally of itself secure you an 
efficient air drainage, and thus g ive 3-ou one of the essential 
condi ions of an ideal orchard site. On the other hand 
m Colorado tho safest situation for an orchard is often 
the entrance to the deep canons, up and down which 
day and night, breezes blow with great regularity • and 



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< CHOOSING THE LAND 

the dangerous siluatious are on the higher bench lands 
where the air is more stationary. 

Soil DRArNAOE.— In .British Columbia, however, no 
condition of surface is letter adapted for a successful 
orchard in yet another essential respect— namely, soil 
drainage-than that given by a genllo slope. As the 
snows melt, which they begin to do, as a rule, soon after 
the middle of .March, the water begins to run down the 
mountain-sides to the lake or river at their foot. If the 
slope is steep, it will flow away rapidly. If the slope is 
gentle, it will in most cases con inue to find its way down, 
at a sufficiently slow rate, during the whole, or at any rate 
during a great part, of the summer. In this way, through 
the agency of the natural seepage of the winter snowfall, 
the roots of the fruit-trees are supplied with liquid 
nourishment during the whole or the greater part of their 
period of natural growth, and it is supplied to them, 
moreover, in the moderate quantities that they need. 
The supply is at no time in excess, lo that water does not 
stagnate about the roots and waterlog them— a condition 
of things that is fatal to the successful growth and success- 
ful yield of orchard trees. 

Aspect.— As regards aspect, some orchardists of ex- 
perience recommend a slope facing the north-west as 
being the ideal aspect for an orchard. Now, while it is 
true that there do exist good reasons for believing that 
th's conclusion -'s correct, nevertheless it is manifestly 
im ussible for all orchards to have a north-west aspect. 
A large proportion must of necessity face in other direc- 
'8. I may say, summarily, so far as my experience 
.nd observations go, it docs not reaUy matter very much 






vZ'We !S?*)iL«>Aiia i r- '-^i^'^.-yti^ LmMi ijrm " 



ASPECT . 

in what direction your orchard faces. The advantages 
and disadvantages of each aspect in turn pretty nearly 
counterbalance one another. A southern slope." while it 
exposes the early opening blossoms to greater risk of 
injury by spring frosts, o„ the other hand puts a higher 
colour on the finished product. A northern expol'ure 
retards the opening of the blossoms, and so minimizes 
the danger arising from frost ; but, to counterbalance 
th.s advantage, it does not secure such a high colour in 
he apple. Provided the orchard is so situated that no 
ndge or projecting shoulder or bluff of . mountain shuts 
out too large a proportion of the daily sunshine, any 

ZLl" •..'" ^^'*^^' ^'">""^^- *^-- - generally 

the bet W t"r , ^ '''''-"^^* ^'^P^ '■« - *'- -hole 
the best, but Its balance of advantages does not very 

greatly exceed those of other aspects. There is only one 
direction towards which I personally would not be wili- 
ng to plant an orchard, and that is on land which faces 
he north unsheltered. On the other hand, if land so 
s^^ated is sufficiently sheltered and protected against 
that fierce enemy, the north wind, I would not be 
deterred from planting even there. Proper shelter can 
always be secured by planting a suitable wind-break, 

poplar '"' ^' """'' '°' ' '^ ^""^'"^^ 'P'"'' "'' Lombardy 
Speaking generally, the most favourable districts for 
growing fruit are those which lie alongside a lake or a 
b g river. The presence of a comparatively large body 
of water m the vicinity exercises a beneficially moderating 
nfluence upon the orchard trees, chiefly by regulating 
the temperature at the times of dangerous frosts 



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« niOOSINO THE LAND 

Altitude.— If your situation is favourable in other 
respects, you .nay carry your orcliard to very mucli 
greater altitudes than is generally supposed. On tho 
northern side of the Rossland Valley, in the south-east 
of Br.tiHh Col„mbia-that is, on a good southern slope- 
orchai-ds thrive quite successfully at altitudes of .3.500 to 
3,000 feet ; and in the neighbouring State of Montana 
(U.S.A.) apples grow with perfect satisfaction up to tho 
altitude of 4,500 feet above sea-level. In Colorado apple 
orchards are eminently successful at much higher alti- 
tuoes-namely, 0,000 feet and laore. As a rule the 
altitudes best suited for orchards in Briti^h Columbia are 
those which range between 1.000 feet and 3,500 leet the 
lower levels being generally the more suitable 

CoM.mTNiCATioxs.-Growing the fruit, however im- 
portant. IS only one part of the business. An equally 
important, and in tho majority of cases a much more 
difficult, part is that of selling the produce, the finished 
and ripened fruit. There is one thing which every ranch 
must possess if this difficulty is to be successfully over- 
come : It must be within fairly easy and fairly reasonable 
reach of a railway or a ste .mboat landing, or there must 
exist a tolerable certainty that such access will exist 
before the orchard reaches the bearing stage. It is also 
very desirable that the ranch should be within touch of 
a good driving or waggon road. Without it the cost of 
getting in domestic and other supplies is greatly increased 
and the rancher is painfully hampered in his movements' 
and consequently to all intents and purposes is as though 
he were almost isolated. Men have made fortunes by 
settling in a remote valley, and after waiting years hav- 



,m:ix^:jk'n 



EXPERT ADVICE 

.al<o„ advantage of ,he onhano.,! value, that follow .ho 
«J .nt of a ra,lroa<l „n-I mM out at a l.ig p„fit T 
mslance „ocu™,l i„ ,„„ in ,he valley of fl '"!„„, ,1" 

man who ntends to irmu- ,.4 ^' ^"^ *^ 

'•-not affonl ,„ dl" £? " ' "' '"' """■ '" "«"-'™'' 

1 urther chapter on Market ; ) market. (J^eo 

W 'r ^."':^^" -^" ^^'^ ^vhole, when the intendin. 
Iru.t-growor is ,n a position to afford it if «,.ii ,, '"^ 



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CHAPTFR IT 



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aorr,— KOCKS— WATKR— TIMBKR 

Soil.— In British Columbia pretty nearly n'l soils alike will 
grow fruit-trocs. Tho superiority of th.; fruit of British 
Columbia is du. very largely to a factor which counts 
for much more than soil— namely, the climate. Not that 
all soils aro of equal value; far from it. Naturally, 
some are better adapted f.-r i roducing gcjd fruit than 
others. The best soil, and the soi. which prevails over 
by far the greater part of the legion, is a red or chocolate- 
coloured sandy loam, generally rather light in texture, 
fairly well supplied with mineral constituents, but lacking 
in nitrogen. It is soil that is easily worked, and conse- 
quently is inexpensive to manage and keep in proper con- 
dition. After a good crop of young rod clover, or similar 
leguminous plant, has been ploughed in, this red loam 
acquires the proper texture, or degree of aesociated 
friability and compactness, that is best suited for orchard 
trees. (See further, in Chapter VIII., under section on 
Clover Crops.) The roots are able to work in it with great 
ease and rapidity, and it promotes the formation of the 
network of small and delicate fibrous roots and rootlets 
which have so much to do with the actual production of 
the fruit. 

Another variety of soil which gives excellent results is 



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SOIL 



9 



of a fine powdery con«,Htonoy, whilish-g,..y i„ eoK.ur. 
rh. docs not rako or nm together any mon, than the 
.vd Handy loan. does. It has a sonu-vvhat .Ik^- appear- 
ance and a n.oHt a greasy fc-el. This is kno in as 
volcan.e ash." It is of n.narkahle natural fertility as 
a-«> .« the n.d sandy lu m. and ,hns is in everv wav 
••mmently adapted f..r grouin. f,.„it. This soil ], nu-t 
wah, amongst other loealities. at the southern end of 
Okanagan Lake, at Sunnnerland. and elsc-whero. an.l at 
c-ertuin i-luees along the Canadian-United States b<„nulary 

«till another variety of .soil, of probahlv even g^-ater 
mhcr..nt natural fertility, is known as •'black muck " 
It Ks heavdy impregnated with decayed and rotting 
vegetable matter, and is found as a rule in the bottoms 
of the vulleys close beside the river or lake which in 
most cases occupies the greater part of the floor of the 
valley. But usually this land must be drained before any 
««e can bo -nado of it. As a general n.le it admits of 
ready dramuge by .ue simple expedient of digging a 
Hurface trench to the river or lake, or down to some 
lower lymg spot. When drained, this sort of soil is first- 
rate for growing vegetables, especially for all kinds of 
root crops. 

Gmvelly tracts are an abomination, and to be avoided 
at all costs. 

In a few localities really astonishing Results are ob- 
tamed on ground that in some ways is little better than 
gravel. It consists principally of disintegrated granite or 
mmute particle,, of rook intermingled with sand and larger 
«tones. This soil contains almost no humus or decajed 



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10 



SOIL — ROCKS— WATER — TIMBER 



vegetable matter, and when dry sets hard, after the 
manner of cement, and throughout the summer it is pretty 
nearly always dry. As a veteran fruit-grower observed 
once when walking across land of this description, " You 
might turn Niagara across it, and it would still be thirsty." 
In fact, it wears such a hungry look that a good British 
or Canadian farmer would consider it not worth a dime 
or sixpence an acre of any man's money. And yet this 
soil does, beyond a doubt, produce an abundance of fruit 
of excellent quality, yielding plums to the value of 
$850 per acre, and cherries that bring in over $1,500 
per acre, and even apples that have won prizes in com- 
petition with the best fruit of the American Continent. 
Still, such land is not to be recommended, chiefly because 
of the great difficulty of getting quite young trees and 
every kind of intermediate crop to start and take root 
properly in it. 

Do not on any consideration buy hardpan or alkali 
soils. The former generally lies a short distance below 
the surface, and is extremely hard, tough, and impervious 
No roots can work in it ; it holds no nutriment ; it pre- 
vents the free passage of moisture. Alkali soils or soils 
impregnated with excess of salts are indicative of a 
process of desiccation or drying up, or of excessive 
evaporation, consequent upon faulty irrigation. How- 
ever induced, they are inimical to plant life generally, and 
consequently are altogether unsuited for growing fruit. 

Rocks.— British Columbia is almost everj^where a pre- 
dominatingly mountainous country. The m^ountains con- 
sist superficially in great part of bare rock. Consequently 
it is not surprising to find that their lower slopes are 



ROCKS 



11 



often httored with fragments of rock, of all sizes and 
lying m all positions. Intrinsically these rock fragments 
are not in themselves inimical to good orchards. If you 
lift up a stone on a mountain-side in even the drier part 
of the year, you will frequently find that the soil under- 
neath It is moist and damp. Therefore the presence of 
stones of a fair size scattered over the surface of your 
orchard slope means so much more moisture for your trees 
to draw upon in the height of the summer, when the 
ground on the surface tends to become dry and parched. 
On the other hand, rocks of the size of boulders, and so 
also a heavy accumulation of stones, no matter what 
their size, are a great hindrance to cultivation. They 
can only be described as a nuisance, and they are a 
decided eyesore. The best time to remove them is 
before planting begins. If they are only few in number 
or very thinly scattered over the surface, they can bo 
left, either permanently or for removal at some later time 
when work is somewhat slack. The best way to dispose of 
these is to empty them into some hollow or gully or hole, 
which it would be an improvement to fill up, or use them 
for making rubble walls for cellars, barns, or other 
buildings, or for building fence walls. If they are large 
they must be cracked with charges of dynamite or by fire 
and the fragments removed. When using fire, make the 
stones red-hot, then pour on them the coldest u ater you 
can get. That will generally crack them well. Neither a 
scattering of loose surface stones nor a few big boulders 
are so wholly objectionable as a hard gravel-bed. This 
you can neither dig nor plough, except at almost super- 
human cost ; and even if you do plant it, the trees 



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12 



SOIL — ROCKS — WATER — TIMBER 



will be almost certain to show in divers ways the effects 
of the dryness which is incidental to such a gravel- 
patch. 

Water.— Marshy ground, and, in fact, any low-lying 
spot in which stagnant water stands for any length of 
time, are alike places to be avoided. To plant an orchard 
in such situations is to condemn it to failure from the 
istart. On the other hand, water is a prime cccssity. 
In a district in which irrigation is absolutely essential to 
the production of fruit, as, for in: ace, in most of the 
Okanagan Valley, water is, of course, a sine qua non. 
When buying land in such a district, it is every bit as 
important to make sure that there does exist a good 
water-supply, and to see that it is adequate for all pur- 
poses, as it is to satisfy yourself that tl o land itself is 
right. And even in districts where imgation is not 
absolutely essential to the production of fruit crops, or 
is not indeed needed at all, it is a wise thing to make 
sure that water can readily be obtained if it is needed. 
This does not mean that there must be a running stream 
through the middle of the orchard. It is sufficient if 
there is one not very far distant, or else some kind of a 
supply stored up for possible use in the height of the 
summer. In several cases a good well is all that is 
required. In a non-irrigated country the natural drainage 
off the mountains, known to fruit-growers as "seepage," 
is as a rule all that the trees require in the form of sub- 
soil moisture. But in this respect the conditions vary. 
In some localities it is found that the quite young trees 
need more moisture than Mature supplics"^; in other 
localities— e.fir.. in Hood River, Oregon— it is the older 



TIMBER 



13 



trees, the trees which are bearing heavily, that call out 
for more moisture than Nature gives them. 

Timber.— When inspecting fruit land with the idea of 
buying, it is also prudent to study the timber on it, and, 
if you can do so, obtain a reliable estimate of what it 
will cost to clear the land for the plough. It is not so 
mueb the number of the trees to the acre as their size and 
the kind of tree that make the expense of clearing mount 
up rapidly. It costs proportionally mucli more to get out 
a tamarack 2 feet or more in diameter than it does to 
lift a black poplar or a fir G inches through. The former 
might cost up to 2 dollars, or even more, to remove, 
whereas the latter could be pulled over by a horse in 
two minutes at, comparatively speaking, no cost at all. 

In many cases the timber can be cut and sold, either 
for railway ties {i.e., sleepers) or for cordwood (for burn- 
ing in domestic .:; ad other stoves) ; or if it consists of ctdar, 
it can be used for building barns, stables, or even a log 
house. In any case, it becomes of value, and to that 
extent the money which it brings in is so much deducted 
from the cost of the land. In some districts— e.<7., the 
Arrow Lakes— the local Fruit-Growers' Union collects 
and sells the timber after the rancher has cut it and 
hauled it down to the water's edge. 



i! 



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CHAPTER III 

IMPROVED V. UNIMPROVED LAND— PRICES OF LAND- 
CAPITAL REQUIRED 

Improved or Unimproved Land.— Almost every man 
who is thinking about growing f it in British Columbia 
finds himself sooner or later face t(. face with the question, 
Shall I buy raw land and clear it myself, and after that 
plant my own trees, or shall I buy an orchard that is 
already planted, or even an orchard in full bearing ? The 
answer is partly a matter of temperament, partly a matter 
of capital, and partly a matter of business calculation. 

The man who cannot command the requisite amount of 
capital for a planted, or even for a partly planted, 
orchard must of necessity content himself with raw 
land, because raw land, it need not be said, costs con- 
siderably less than improved land {vide p. 18). But 
even though a man does possess the necessary amount 
of capital, it does not therefore follow that he will be wise 
to buy au orchard that is already in bearing, or a young 
orchard recently planted. Some people are naturally im- 
patient and eager for tangible results. To such the long 
wait whilst the trees are growing up is likely to become 
very irksome and trying. Naturally, they prefer to buy 
an orchard that is actually in bearing or within m^ 
able distance of bearing. On the other hand, thi .e 
quite a number of people who would consider the selec- 

14 



THE PROS AND CONS 



15 



tion of the trees, the planting and training of them, and 
the laying out of the orchard, as tasks of so pleasurable 
a nature that they would on no account have them done 
by anybody but themselves. And superadded to this 
plea of the creative instincts there exist weighty reasons 
on the commercial side why the man who can afford the 
necessary capital, as well as the time to wait, should plant 
his orchard himself, and as a horticulturist grow up along 
with his trees. 

Almost without exception, the older orchards through- 
out British Columbia contain a great number of varieties. 
Instances are not unknown where or '^ --^tp^ there ai-e 
twenty varieties of apples alone, to sa> uo. ng of other 
kinds of fruit, or on 20 acres as many as thirty or approach- 
ing forty varieties. Now, for a purely local market it is 
an advantage to have a well-chosen succession of both 
apples and other fruits. But British Columbia as a fruit- 
growing region has now passed beyond the stage of a 
mere producer for local markets. She grows now to 
supply (as far as she is able to do so) markets on the 
prairies of the Dominion, markets in Britain, markets in 
Germany, Sweden, and Holland, markets in Australia 
and New Zealand, and markets are even calling to her 
from South Africa, China, and Japan. If this wide- 
spread demand, distant as well as eager, is to be properly 
met, apples must bo grown of suitable varieties, of a 
suitable character, and in suitable quantities to enable 
the British Columbia grower to export them at a mini- 
mum cost. The grower whose orchard is large enough 
to allow him to export individually will naturally make 
a clope study of the costs of production, and he who 






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16 



IMPROVED V. UNIMPROVED LAND 



keeps them down to the lowest figure will have an obvious 
advantage over tlie man who is remiss or unskilful in 
this regard. One way by which the costs of production 
maj' be kept down by the individual exporter is to grow 
a few varieties specially suited to the market he is grow- 
ing for, and to produce eat;h of those varieties in large 
quantities. By so doing he will simplify the operations of 
planting, pruning, spraying, cultivating, and orchard 
management generally, as well as facilitate the processes 
of picking, packing, and marketing. 

And there is also another important reason why the 
policy just outlined is the one best calculated to secure 
success in orcharding in British Columbia. The rail- 
ways and other transportation companies of Canada will 
all carry a freight carload (minimum 10 tons of 2,000 
pounds each) for a conriderably lower proportional rate 
than they will carry 1 ton for over the same distance. 
Hence a whole carload of any one commodity, all of the 
same kind, quality, and degree, is not only a more readily 
saleable unit, but it costs very much less to move about. 

For these reasons, and for others arising out of them, 
the man who is in a position to grow fruit on a fairlv 
large scale will be wiser to make his orchard for himself, 
plant the varieties he considers it expedient to plant, 
and aim generally at simplicity and economy of produc- 
tion, and saving of effort in marketing. These ends he 
is obviously not so likely to secure if he buys an orchard 
of the older character, with its multiplicity of varieties, 
and in all probability with numerous other features, all 
alike inimical to commercial production on a large and 
economical scale. 



CO-OPERATION I7 

True, he may bo able to buy an orchard Avitli yt.uiv 
trees planted within the last few years that will answer 
well enough to his conception of a modem commercial 
orchard, but such are rare. It is the fashion to sell 
orchard land, planted or not planted, in small lots— 
10 acres or even .5 acres. There is a xastly greater 
demand for fruit land in lots of this size than there is 
for tracts of even 20 acres in area. Consequently, larger 
orchards of the right description are rare. 

xMen who possess smaller amounts of capital must 
naturally content themselves with a smaller orchard. 
And provided a man understands his business, and is 
willing to do a fair share of the uork himself, he can get 
a good living off a 10-acre orchard, and even off some 
5-acro orchards. And there exist easy means by which 
he can overcome or remove any disabilities that may 
attach to the more modest scale of his operations. His 
remedy is co-operation, working through a local Fruit- 
Growers'-Association. (See further, Chapter XIII.) 

To men who grow fruit on this scale and under these 
conditions, the older orcliards may in some cases be 
recommended as suitable purchases, or they may be 
wise to buy improved ranches with growing fruit-trees on 
them. The local association will be certain to have more 
or less large quantities of fruit of each or all of one man's 
special varieties sent in by other ranchers in the locality, 
so that the association will be able to do what the in- 
dividual cannot do— namely, make up a r:irload of this 
or the other variety or similar varieties. 

Prices of Fruit Land.— Prices of fruit lands varv 
considerably, both the i-rices of raw lands and the prices 

3 



11 
= 1(1 

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18 



IMPROVED V. UNIMPROVED LAND 



of improved lands. Botli kinds arc somewhat dearer in 
the districts whioh enjoy the widest reputation, such as 
Vernon and Kelowna in the Okanagan V^aliey. But price 
is also to some extent determined by the relative cost of 
clearing, the amount of improvements effected, proximity 
to railway and road, and so forth. Speaking generally, 
the price of raw land ranges from $50 up to $250 per 
acre for small lots, but goes down as low as §25 or even 
§15 for large blocks. Improved land costs from §200 
up to $350 per acre for small lots, and orchards in bear- 
ing sell at $500 to $1,000 per aero. In the better-known 
fruit-growing regions of the United States — Washington 
and Oregon, that is to say, Yakima, Wenatchee, and 
Hood River — prices for bearing orchards run up to 
double the figures I have just quoted. 

Terms op Payment. — Fruit land in small lots is 
usually paid for in instalments, one-third or one-fourth 
cash down, and the balance after intervals of six, or 
twelve, or twenty-four months, 6 per cent, interest being 
charged on the outstanding instalments. These terms 
are not, however, invariable ; all sorts of arrangements 
are made, from all cash to 10 per cent, cash, and the time 
for payment may extend from one year to five or even 
more, while the interest sometimes is put at 7 per cent., 
or even 8 per cent. 

Capital Required. — Other expenses which will have 
to bo incurred in the majority of cases are the cost of 
clearing, breaking the ground, planting, buying the trees, 
fencing, building a stable, poultry-house, and dwelling- 
house, buying seed and plants, tools and implements, 
and live stock, also furniture. Each and every one of 



CAPITAL REQUIRED 19 

these items naturally varies greatly from individual to 
individual and from ranch to ranch. Land may, of course, 
he hought for less than $100 per acre that is quite satin 
factory for growing fruit on. Clearing, for instance, may 
cost anything between §50 and $100, or even, as on the 
Pacific Coast near Vancouver, run up to as high a figure 
as $200 and §250 per acre. Then again, consider the 
dwelling-house. One man will build himeelf a liouse of 
cedar logs, and ill that he will need to find money for 
will bo the doors and windows, and the frames for them, 
and for the internal linings of the shell, and for the parti- 
tions, the cost being, maybe, not more than §100, or 
even less. From that figure houses cost all prices' up 
to §5,000. l^robably I shall not bo far wrong if I say 
that the majority of ranchers' houses cost from §1,000 
to §2,500 each. Other items of a variable nature arc 
the stable, the poultry-houses and run, the family living, 
the seeds and plants, the furniture, and the fences. The 
following table is consequently offered merely as a model, 
and is not to be taken as m any sense a final, or even a 
complete, statement of the expenses connected with the 
starting of a fruit ranch in British Columbia : 



^.! 



Land, 3 acres at 8100 
Clearing and ploughin'; 

8100 
Fences 

Dwelling-house ... 
Poultry-house 

Stable 

Furniture 

Fruit-trees 

Seeds and Plants ... 
Tools and Implements 



at 



Dollars. 

1,000 

1.000 
100 

l,2i,0 
50; 
400 1 
200 
250 
250 



Dollars. 

Family living (2 years) ... 1,200 
Live stock (horse, cow, pig, 

poultry) ... 275 

r , 6,050 

Contra: DoUars. 

Potatoes, second year 750 
Strawberries ... 50 

Eggs (2 years) ... 100 
Jlilk and butter sold 100 

1,000 

5.050 



■^^WIW. 



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20 



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I ■! 



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nVIPROVKD V. UNIMPROVED LAND 



If the rancher does all the work himself, or if he is a 
hachelor without a family, he may reduce the above 
expenses by about $!,:«>(►. thus bringing the prime cost 
down to about §3,7.50. So that, on the whole, putting 
the price of land and the cost of clearing it together, as I 
have done above, at $200 per acre, I should consider 
that a man buying 10 acres would require a capital of 
£700 to £l,r00 all told, if ho is to carry along com- 
fortably and safely until his orchard begins to bear 
consistently in the sixth year. This estimate makes 
all duo allowance for crops growo. between the trees 
during the second, third, fourth, and fifUi years, but 
allows nothing for timber sold off the land, nothing for 
produce of the soil the first year, nothing for money 
earned in the owner's spare time. On tlie other hand, 
it does include cost of living for a small family for the 
first two years, the Government tax for the first five 
years, proceeds from poultry during every year of the 
five, and, of course, all the various items enumerated 
just above. 

Taxation. — As a fruit-rancher, the orchard-owner 
pays only one tax and no rates whatever. The tax 
is a levy of | per cent, upon the assessed value (say 
80 per cent, of the actual market value) of his real 
property, with a 10 per cent, discount for prompt 
payment. 

Irrigation Charges.— To the items of expenditure 
just enumerated must be added the tax for irrigation 
water if the ranch is selected in an irrigation district. 
This will amount to $2.50 to $5 per acre, or $25 to $50 
per annum ; so that in the course of the five years the 




IRRIOATION CHAROES 



21 



expense on this account would amount to $125 or $2/M). 
In a non-irrigated district this exix-nso would not generally 
he incuiwd, although, on the other hand, it might eveij 
there bo necessary to dig a well or put in a small wooden 
flume, or even an iron pipe, at a cost of anything between 
SI and S200. 



<» 



§ 



CHAPTER IV 




CLEARING 

In many of the older orchards of Britifih Columbia you 
will observe the short, blackened stumps of former forest 
trees remaining scattered amongst the live apple and 
other fruit-trees. These evidences of incomplete clearing 
are veritable eyesores to the man who loves his orchard. 
Nay, they are worse than eyesores; they are serious 
hmdrances in the way of cultivation. Big rocks prevent 
you from ploughing straight along, but in recompense 
they do hold a small amount of moisture; but big 
tree-stumps not only block the path, they fail to give 
any sort of compcn8a..un whatever. On every account 
It 18 decidedly preferable to clear everything off the land 
in the first instance that you would not wish to retain 
there perpetually. A clean sweep costs very little more 
than a partly finished job, and it makes all your subse- 
quent operations so very much easier, so very much 
more satisfactory, and proportionally much cheaper. 

The methods of clearing are many. Some people use 
machmery-i.e., stump-pullers. Others rely upon chains 
and pulleys, using horses for their motive power. Others 
make dynamite and stumping - powder do the work 
Others, again, employ fire ; and yet others put their 
trust for the most part in the muscles God has given them 
in their own amis. 

22 



8LA8HINO, PIUNO, AND BURNING 23 

Slahhino and Piling. -Before any of thcHo variouH 
methodH are put into force, it is usual to rut down all 
the scrub or smaller bushes, young trees and saplings, 
and all kinds of undergrowth, and pile it up for burning 
as well as saw through the bigger f.,rest trees, home ik'viAo 
burn these last along with all the rest, but that is wasteful 
and extravagant. If there arc a sufficient number of 
the.se l,>gs of suitab!. size, it is better to cut them up for 
railway sleepers, known in Canada as "tics," or into 
cordwood for domestic use. Or they may be drawn to 
one side and stacked up for future use at home, or for 
makmg into fence posts and rails, or for constructing 
pigsties and other outhouses. 

BuKNiNo.-When the scrub has been slashed and piled 
-and there are one right way and several uTong u ays of 
piling It-it is burnt. In the process of burning the scrub 
the stumps of many of the bigger trees that have been 
cut down wdl become charred. In several of the irrigated 
districts there is an absence of scrub, and the bi-^ trees 
are fewer in number. To that extent the initial costs are 
consequently reduced. Owing to the many and seriou.slv 
destructive forest fires which ranged throughout the 
province of British Columbia in 1910 and previous 
years, the Government in 1911 took extra precautions 
to prevent this danger and minimize the great loss that 
resulted by greatly increasing the number of fire wardens 
throughout the prov.. ^ A further consequence of this 
and of the other precautionary measures adopted was 
that no bush fire or clearing fire was allowed to be lighted 
between the beginning of May and the end of September. 
This proved in many eases a decided Hardship to new 



fit 

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24 



CLEARING 



it 



Rcttlcrs. anxious to make progress with the preparations 
for their orchards. 

Stump-Pullers. — If the orchard-maker is able to com- 
mand the necessary amount of capital for purchasing the 
plant, the most efficacious and in the long run the most 
economical method of clearing is to employ machinery — 
namely, stump-pullers driven by a donkey engine, or 
worked by hjrses or oxen. While the plant varies, of 
course, a good deal in price, it may suffice for general pur- 
poses to say that a satisfactory equipment can be bought 
for S200 to S350. What the subsequent cost will be — 
namcl3% the cost of the actual operations of clearing — 
is obviously a very variable figure. It depends partly 
upon the size and character of the trees, partly upon 
their number and partly upon the description of the sur- 
face. So far there are very few data available as to 
actual cost of clearing by machinery. In one case that 
has come to my knowledge the cost of the actual opera- 
tions amounted to $50 per acre ; in another place to 
,x65. Near Vancouver, where the timber is not only 
large, but dense, clearing by machinery has cost, if I 
remember correctly, over S200 per acre. 

Chain and PuLr '.y Tackle. — Next to machinery 
comes the chain and pulley tackle. The apparatus con- 
sists of stout steel logging chains and two or more steel 
pulleys, and a team of horses. One end of one chain is 
fastened round the stump to be removed, one end of the 
second chain round some big stump conveniently near 
to serve as an anchorage, and the two are then connected 
together by a pulley at which the horst^s pull in such a 
way that the force brought to bear directly upon the 



,\ »^j.-,.sF«..>u:. 



THE USE OF EXPLOSIVES 25 

stump you desire to pull out is equivalent to from two 
to five teams nil straining together. 

By both those methods just described— that of stump- 
pullers and the three-pulley tackle— the roots are apt to 
come out in one big mass, weighing sometimes a ton or 
more. This makes it necessary to remove the soil from 
the roots, a process which often costs a considerable 
amount of labour, and in British Columbia labour is ex- 
pensive. This drawback does not accompany any of the 
methods I now proceed to outline. 

BLASTmo.— The method of stumping most in favour 
with ranchers and the men who usually clear for them 
is to bore a hole well down under the centre of the stump, 
using an augur or an iron bar. Then place in it from 
one-quarter up to as many as a dozen, or even more, 
sticks of dynamite or stumping-powdcr, or both com- 
bined. Ignite a fuse, and then retire to a safe distance. 
After the explosion they gather up the pieces and fling 
them on the pile to burn. This is a costly method" 
especially if the explosives used are not paid for by the 
men who are using them. There is also a certain amount 
of danger associated A\ith it, owing to the naturally un- 
stable character of the explosives. Hence, for the new 
settler, until he becomes familiar with the character and 
peculiarities of dynamite and stumping-powdcr, it is wis(> 
to contract with those who do understand them, and 
leave the latter to provide their own dynamite and 
powder. 

Australian Jack.— I once had for a few weeks the 
loan of an extremely useful implement— namely, a patent 
jack, made in Victoria, Australia, which could be levered 



,:\i] 



ll 






26 



CLEARING 



up some half an inch at a time, notch by notch, and in 
the hands of a single handy Dan was capaijlc of h.iing a 
dead weight of 12 tons. This instrument was employed 
in the following manner . The stump was first split open, 
not blown comijlctely out of the ground, by a small 
charge of stumping-powder. Each of the pieces into 
wliich it split was then attacked in turn and levered out 
of the ground with the jack, and fuially drawn away by 
a single horse. In this way a very considerable economy 
was effected in the use of explosives. The instrument 
would be of peculiar and valuable sen-ice for clearing 
amongst fruit-trees or close to buildings, where heavy 
charges of powder or dynamite could not be used with- 
out risk of doing serious damage to trees or buildings. 

Stump Burning.— For burning the stumps as they 
stand two or three different methods are recommcndr-' 

In the charpitting method a ring of kindling is piJ. 
round the base of the stump, on the surface of the groiuid, 
and the kindling covered with sod to the depth of 
6 inches, except at one point, preferably a point on the 
A\ indward side. It is at this point that the fire is started ; 
but when the kindling gets well alight and is burning 
strongly, this opening is also closed up. The fire is then 
left until the whole of the stump is cliarrcd through and 
through. This method is. however, only suited for soils 
in which there is a fairly large percentage of clay. In 
sandy soils it is not so efficacious, for as the stump's fangs 
char away, the loose earth tends to fall in, and so put 
the fire out. To overcome this difficulty, a trench must 
be dug several inches deep, and the bark removed from 
the btump and Ti-om ils lanijs us deep as the trench goes. 



LEVELLING THE CLEARED LAND 27 

But then, again, the sod from sandy soil tends to cn^mhlo 
to pieces, letting the sand trickJe in amongst the fire 
Clmrpitting nould seem, therefore, to he a method hetter 
suited fur 'n'ey soils. 

AnotlR. ..ethod of burning the stumps in mlu is to 
bore holes mider the stump (this can be done by the same 
engme), insert iron pipes turned up at the end to act as 
blowpipes, and force draught or air down them from a 
fan or blower driven by a gasolene engine. Bv employing 
this mcthod-which, however, is hardly likelv to com- 
mend Itself to the small orchardist or the inexperienced 
settler-stumps from 2| to 5 feet in diameter are burned 
out at a cost of $1.60 to $3 each, say an average cost 
of $2.30 (= 10s. each). 

Levelling and Breaking .-Having cleared all im- 
pediments off the land, your next procedure will be to 
level ,< to some extent by drawing over it a harrow or 
some sort of home-made scraper. In many cases this 
Will be sufficient. There are cases in which a large road 
shovel would be u.seful but generally an implement of 
that kind IS not readily obtainable, and the rancher has 
to proceed without it. 

Levelling is followed by ploughing or breaking the land. 
On the light loam, so characteristic of British Columbia if 
the gromid has been well harrowed first both ways, with 
such an implement as a spring-toothed harrow the task 
of breaking is not so very difficult or formidable. 

Having got our land broken, and once again levelled 
by harrowing, we are in a position to begin the work of 
actually making our orchard. 

The soil of British Columbia is, as a general rule, lacking 



m 

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US j^SW. 



28 



CLEARIN^G 



i U 



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I 



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in ni'Togen, The best time to make good the deficiency 
is at .his stage, before any tree-planting is done, and the 
best means of supplying the nitrogen is to sow clover, 
preferably red clover. Through the bacteriological 
activity set up in and by means of the roots of vhe clover, 
nitrogen is abstracted from the atmosphere and com- 
municated to the soil in a form in which it can be readily 
assimilated by the young fruit-trees. Theoretically 
this is beyond all question the best plan to follow- 
namely, to sow red clover in the late summer or early 
fall, and plough it in the following spring or early summer. 
After that plant your young fruit-trees. In actual prac- 
tice, however, the course of procedure is in the vast 
majority of cases different. On the small holdings which 
nearly all the fruit districts in British Columbia alike 
favour men plant as thej^ clear, an acre or two at a time. 
It is in most cases a matter of vital necessity to obtain 
a revenue as early as possible from the young orchard, 
and to that end time is of the utmost importance. Accord- 
ingly, most men plant their trees first and then sow the 
clover. 

Instead of red clover, some practical men of consider- 
able experience recommend that alfalfa or hairy vetches 
be grown. But these crops, too, must be ploughed in as 
soon as may be, even though a second sowing may have 
to be made. 

Some Results. — The cheapest clearing that has been 
brought to my knowledge was done for ^15 per acre, but, 
unfortunately, I do not know exactly what it consisted 
of. In some parts of the Okanagan, where the timber is 
very light, clearing has been dene at $25 to $C0 per acit;. 



COST OF CLEARING 



29 



In East Kcotcnay $35 to $60 per acre are the figures at 
which a good deal of clearing has been and is being done. 
Near Castlee;ar, at the confluence of the Kootenay and 
Columbia Rivers in West Kootenay, land has been cleared 
with a stump-puller for a cost of $20 to $25 i)er acre, 
powder being used to split the bigger stumps— that is to 
say, those which exceeded 20 inches in diameter. Along 
with the stump-puller draught oxen were used instead ,f 
horses. Two oxen turned the windlass of the stump- 
pullor, and a third drew back the heavy cable from off 
the drum and dragged it to the next stump. In this case 
the stump-puller cost $325. In other parts of West 
Kootenay the cost of clearing nms up to $50, $90, and 
$100 per i.cre, and occe tonally more. 



Ill 



I 



•ij 



li 



.].-%hfc»t^l;.-#J 



^1 .«»•»- - 



CHAPTER V 



INTERMEDIATE CROPS 



i Ji ': 

iff 







During the first two or three j-cars the fniit-rancher is 
much more keenly interested in the crops that he groMS 
between the joung orchard trees than he is in the trees 
themselves. These crops consist chiefly of roots, forage, 
crops, and small fruits. 

Root Crops.— Of root crops, the most important by 
far is potato?s. They are comparatively easy to grow, 
they yield well in the light sandy soils of British Columbia, 
and they sell for good prices. In the autumn or fall 
potatoes dug straight out of the ground fetch in car- 
load lots $20 to $30 per ton. In the spring, after the 
winter breaks up, they are wont to be scarce and dear. 
Prices range then between $40 and $50 per ton, and I 
have known them to jump up for a short space to even 
double the latter figure. 

Potatoes are a very serviceable crop to grow as the 
first crop after breaking the land. They insure its being 
well worked, and that is beneficial in that it sweetens the 
soil and corrects its acidity and sourness. Where the 
ground was occupied by fir, pine, or other coniferous 
trees, the soil is wont to be more or less impregnated with 
turpentine. The effects of this must first be got rid of 
before one can hope to grow the majority of crcns with 

80 



¥^^:^,^¥/rMx^^-ms- 



T 






SOIL-IM. ROVING CROPS 31 

anything like success. A crop of potatoes will do fairly 
ofTectually. Ashcroft, near the point where the Fraser 
River changes its direction from west to south-west has 
gained a high reputatioi^ for potatoes. In the beginnin^r 
of November, 1911, the province of British Columbia 
carried off at New York, at the Pan-American Exhibi- 
tion, agamst an array of sixty competitors dra\vn from all 
parts of the American Continent, the Stil«ell Trophy and 
S1,000 for the best collection of potatoes, 102 varieties 
being staged in the exhibit. 

Other root crops ^^hich it pays to grow between the 
trees are turnips and mangolds, more especially if the 
rancher keeps a cow or pigs. There is a limited market 
for both crops, as also for carrots, for giving to dairy cows 
and feeding horses at the logging camps and mines, and 
in the towns. 

Onions are profitable, but they rcqxuve stronger. slifTer 
soil than is generally found in British Columbia. Never- 
theless, one grower at Kelowna has been highly successful 
with this crop, and is reputed to have made quite a 
fortune from the business. 

Clover, ETc.-If the fruit-trees only are considered, 

a far better crop to grow is red clover, lucerne (known in 

Canada as alfalfa), cow-peas, hairy vetches, or some 

similar leguminous {i.e., pod-bearing) plant. All these 

serve to put nitrogen into the soil, and nitrogen is the 

one property which as a rule the British Columbia soils 

are deficient in. They also supply humus, or decaved 

vegetable matter, an ingredient of the utmost possible 

value, as it holds and stores up moisture against the dry, 

hot months of the summer. Properly speaking, thes^ 



1 



fii 



(■ 



:L<a 



1 



m 




'■^m>^£ii,mif&m^mm 



32 



INTERMEDIATE CROPS 



leguminous crops ought to ho plo"ghccl in ; but for ono 
year, at any rate, or possibly for two, the rancher ^vho 
is straitened for capital may mow the crop and sell tho 
hay, though ho must understand that by so doing ho 
is robbing his young trees. Hay always fetches good 
prices, generally in tho neighbourhood of §15 to §20 per 
ton. Clover and alfalfa are best sown on the top of the 
snow just before it finally disappears in the latter part 
of March or tho beginning of April. Twenty pounds to 
the acre is tho quantity usually sown ; of hairy vetches, 
50 pounds to the acre. 

On no account should cereals, such as wheat, oats, or 
barley, be grown amongst fruit-trees. They rob tho trees 
of moisture, and the trees want always all the moisture 
they can get. But there is no objection even to cereals if 
they are turned in green, or cut green and used as fodder. 

The value of clover as an orchard crop will bo still 
further discussed at a later stage. (See section on Cover 
Crops, Chapter VIII.) 

Vegetables. — Unless the ranch is situated close to a 
market — that is, a town, logging camp, saw-mill, or mine 
— it is not profitable to grow vegetables, except in large 
quantities for " shipment " away in carload lots. And 
even close to the towns the rancher has very formidable 
competitors in the Chinese " truck," or market-gardeners, 
who are adepts at growing such produce as celery, onions, 
lettuce, marrows, cucumbers, cabbage, peas, rhubarb, 
and various kinds of salads. They even pay rents as 
high as $50 up to §125 per acre for ground for market- 
garden purposes. With them labour is cheap, and they 
make high prices of their produce. 






STBAWUliKKIES AND UASPDERRIKS 33 

Celery i, groun on a largo scale at Aru„(r,„^., at tl,e 
north end of the Okanagan Valley, the avemgo vieM 
l-emg about 8 tons per acn,, which sells for S400 lo SOOO 

Small FB„,Ts.-Under this heading are understood 
« rawberncs raspherrios, Wackhorries. gooselKTries ; red 
l>lack. and white currants. O, the*, strawberries are (he' 
™o»t -ful. The plants, once planted, are co„n>™a ,y 
good f.n four years. The rows should be wide enough 
apart to allow „, .,„ „„,i„„^ ^„^ ^.^_|^.^,^^^^ " 

.1 awn .,, and down between them-say, 2.1 to 3 feet 
1 . P ant. ,n ,l,e rows n,ay be any distant /rom U to 
'i feet. An acre of ground requires Irem 5,000 to t'ooO 
strawberry plants to cover it. In British Columbia it is 

ttTtht ""' '" "'""' " '"«" "-^^ '^"" ^'-"berries 
than the grower car. see a pretty fair pro..pcct of getting 
ga hored every day. Young strawberry plants can goner 
. 1 y be bought for S8 to S,0 per thousand, son,etinfes for 

es.v Th„ crop can be grown prolitably for $2 per crate 
of 21 pounds, but not lor a smaller price. If the rate 
;vi 1 not fetch S2, it is better to send the Irui ta "m 

>ctory. The price usually made ranges fron> 82.50™ 

J'r. O. J. W,gcn, near Creston, has made nearly $1 OOO 
per acre of strawberries. The best varieties to gro;!! 
soley because they tmvel well -are Magoof Ld 
C^A-s Seedling, the former being probably the hea;,"! 

Raspberries bring in from S600 to SOOO per acre Thev 
must be planted by themselves, as the oL contnll 
«>nd up suckers all round them, a,rd these are apt to tate ° 

6 



i 



;n 



INTERMEDIATK CROPS 



l»-^!fe'; 



fere with the roots of the frui^-trcca if thoy spring up too 
close to thorn. Young ra8pl)crry canes can usually ho 
bought for S2 per hundred. The fruit is in groat demand 
for making into jam by the jam factorien. The prevalent 
variety is the C'uthhert, but a new variety, tlie Herbert, 
is reported to bo an improvement on it. Plant in rows 
G feet apart, placing the plants U to 2 feet distant in 
the row. 

There is a keen demand, too. for blackberries for the 
same purpose. The price runs higher than the price of 
raspberries. Whereas tlie latter gone rally sell for $2.50 
to S:i per crate of 24 pounds, blackberries fetch, as a rule, 
S3. 50 to S4 per crate. The Erie, Snyder, and Evergreen 
are all good commercial Vt^rietics. 

For black currants, again, there is a strong market, at 
about the same prices as are paid for blackberries. 

Red currants are not in very great demand, and for 
gooseberries and white currants the nand is com- 
paratively small. The i)riccs for these three varieties 
last mentioned are $2 to $3 per crate. 

If the rancher happens to be within easy reach of 
a jam factory, he will find it quite profitable to grow 
small fruits to sell to it. These factories give good 
prices, and the gathering of the fruit for them is greatly 
simplified. 

Poultry. — Although it cannot literacy be described 
as a crop, the keeping of poultry is a branch of ranch 
economy which no good rancher should neglect or 
overlook. It pays best to keep pure-bred birds. Such 
make higher prices for breeding ; they grow quicker and 
thr' ") better. Eggs fetch 35 cents to 75 cents per dozen. 



POFLTRY THAT PAYS 35 

Young chi.ks do not dio on the dry .andy soils of Rritisl. 

But tlu.y have mon- cMiomios of (ho pn.lutory t^■p. (o fao- 
-nnmoly. sin.nks, coyotes, .casols, ha.vkK. and otlurs 
tl • first-.iamod ho.ng the most dostnutivo. I.ivo rl.iekon 

-II h.,n .0 cvnts to U cents per pound, so that a ^^^^^^^^^ 
plump l„rd uill fetch from so cents to SI. 



I: 



i 



ii 



CTIAPTEPv VI 




VARIETIES TO PLANT 

Apples.— At the presont day there are far too many 
varieties of apples beinjj; grown in British C'ohimbia. If 
you take up tlie h hedule of prizes offered at any of tlio 
local fniit fairs in the province, you will find that the 
number of varieties of apples alone amounts to thirty, 
or even mon>. and there arc a very large number of 
varieties for which no prizes arc offered at all. Now, 
partly because of her wide geographical area, partly 
because of her comparative absence of large centres ol 
population, and partly because of the fewness as yet of 
the population which she does possess, British Columbia 
must of nc( essity be an exporting country. If she is to 
be compelled to find markets for her fruit at a distance 
from her own borders, it is obviously the true commer'Mal 
policy to grow the fruit and the varieties \\hich will 
travel best, and go farthest without injury. Manifestly, 
then, the apple is the fruit that must be grown, But 
for a sound and successful commercial exjwrt trade 
thirty to forty varieties of apples are distinctly too manj' 
to grow. It is altogether too much to expect the con- 
sumers of apples in so many parts of the world to make 
themselves sufficiently familiar with that number of 
different kinds of apples so as to appreciate properly their 
several merits and good qualities. 

86 



MS^ 



SI'RVIVAL OF TTTF FTTTFST 



r, 



Out of the long liftt of varieties grown, experienoo is 
j,'mclually seleeting the fittest. By the fittest I menu not 
only those that it is m*^ ,t satisfactory to the rancher to 
^!ro\v. but thoKe that it is most satisfactory to the buyer 
to purchase. Tinje will, no doubt, still further n'«liicc the 
list, which embraces about one dozen varieties, and is as 
follows : Wealthy Wagener, Jonathan, Spitzcnberg. Mcin- 
tosh Red, Northern Spy. Cox's Orange I'ippin, Rome 
Beauty, Wincsnp. Oravcnstein, King of Tompkins Co., 
and Vcllow Newtown. To thc.«!e may be added in the 
second degree : Grimes's Golden, Baldwin, Fameu.HC or 
Snow, Red Cheek Pippin, Winter Banana. Golden Russet, 
Onfario. and Ribslon Pippin. 

In these lists no early or summer varieties, such as 
Duchess of Oldenburg, are included, because they will 
neither keep nor travel well. The variety amongst the 
above which ripens earliest is Wealthy, in the beginning 
to the middle of September. This variety is in demand 
in Australia. Wealthy is followed by Gravenstein ; then 
comes McTnto.sh Red, then Jonathan, Cox's Orange, 
King, and Spitzenborg ; and then the late winter varieties, 
ripening pretty much together. The Engli.sh market 
will buy Cox's Orange, Yellow Newtown, Spitzenberg, 
Jonathan, Northern Spy, Grimes's Golden, Golden Russet, 
Baldwin, King, and Ribston. The Northern Spy is the 
best seller on the prairies. Jonathan, Mcintosh Red, 
and Spitzenl)erg fetch high prices in the United States ; 
Wealthy, Gravenstein, Wagener, and Mcintosh stand 
high in the local markets. In point of intrinsic quality 
the best amongst the above are Cox's Orange. Spitzonbor", 
Gravenstein, Jonathan, Northern Spy, Mcintosh Red, 



38 



VARIETIES TO PLANT 



!> 



II i 



' i! 



Wagener, Grimes's Golden, Fameuse, Winter Banana, and 
Wealthy. Good sellers, though apples of poorer quality 
are Rome Beauty, King, Baldwin, and Red Cheek Pippin' 
Golden Russet and Ribston are favourites in England. 
So far as my own experience goes, I would recommend 
the rancher to make his selection from the following 
varieties. If he plants 10 acres, he should confine him°- 
self to three, or at the very most four. The curtailed list 
IS : Wagener, Jonathan, Mcintosh Red, Northern Spy 
Cox's Orange, Gravenstein, King, Rome Beauty, Spitzen- 
berg, and Wealthy. Wagener and Jonathan both come 
into bearing comparatively early. Northern Spy compara- 
tively late. All of these varieties succeed well in the 
interior of the province ; King and Duchess of Oldenburg 
do best in the coast districts. For altitudes above 2,000 
feet those varieties which require a long season for ripen- 
mg their fruit, such as Northern Spy and Yellow Newtown 
should not be planted. Spitzenberg and Winesap 
deteriorate in quality at high altitudes. In such situa- 
tions the varieties which succeed best are Duchess of 
Oldenburg, Wealthy, Mcintosh Red, Gravenstein, Jona- 
than, Wagener, Rome B-auty, and Gr-' 's Golden. 

But the choice of the man Mho pk_. only 10 acres 
will be, or ought to be, pretty well determined for him 
by what his nearest neighbours have already planted 
For commercial export he will find it so advantageous to 
combine with his neighbours that he cannot well afford 
to grow different varieties from what they grow. 

Of course, every rancher plants a tree or two of dif- 
ferent varieties for domestic use, and here he can follow 
h.s own fancy absolutely unfettered. And this applies 



^^^r.l^Wi^^^-g^^ 



t^^'i 



PEARS, PLUMS, AND OTHER FRUITS 39 

to other kinds of fruit as well-peais, plums, cherries, 
peaches, apricots, and so forth. 

Other FRuixs.-If the rancher prefers to grow pears 
for export, the Bartlett (Williams's Bon Chretien) is by 
far the best seller ; but it must be gathered green, and 
will not keep long after it gets ripe. Other good com- 
mcicial varieties are Flemish Beauty, Iio^^ell, Doyenne 
du Cornice, Beurre Clairgeau, Beurre Anjou, and Duchessc 
d'Angouleme. 

In plums the most valuable from every point of view 
is the Italian Prune. Amongst other varieties, it must 
suffice to mention Bradshaw, Burbank's Sugar Plum 
Lombard, Colombia, Yellow Egg, Washington, Peach, 
and Greengage. 

The most desirable of the sweet cherries to grow are 
Bing, Lambert, and Royal Anne. All three sell well 
The last-named brings in the highest price per pound 
Early Richmond, Olivet, and Morcllo stand first amongst 
the sour or preserving cherries. Windsor is an excellent 
sweet cherry . May Duke is valua ble . 

Peaches are grown commercially in the Okanagan 
Valley, but the growers are being gradually— in some 
cases rapidly— converted to the opinion that they would 
do better to grow apples. If peaches are planted, I 
would strongly advise the planter to stick to the earlier 
ripening varieties, such as Alexander, Yellow St. John, 
Triumph, Early Hative, and Early Crawford. 

Grapes, apricots, and quinces are not likely to be 
extensively grown on the commercial scale in British 
Columbia, 



fii 



ii 



'■I . 

i i .. 



CHAPTER VII 

PLANTING— METHODS AND PROCESSES 

In planning an orchard the object should be to cover the 
whole of the ground as far as possible with trees, so that 
no part of it is left unoccupied. There are two principal 
systems by which this aim can be most economicaUy 
accomplished. One is knoM-n as the square plan, the other 
as the hexagonal plan. 

Square PLAN.-In this an-angement the trees are 
planted m straight lines up and down the orchard, as well 
as across and across. The rows are best drau-n 30 feet 
apart, and the trees planted 30 feet apart in the rows This 
defines the positions of the permanent trees of the orchard 
But along with the permanent trees it is customary to 
plant what are known as "fillers." These are trees 
which It IS intended to cut out after a few years, when the 
permanent trees have grown so much that they need 
more room. The fillers are planted half-way between 
the permanent trees in both directions, across and across 
and up and down ; or-another arrangement-in each 
square formed by any four of the permanent trees the 
filler IS placed in the middle, at the intersection of the 
hues joinnig the opposite corners diagonally. The former 
arrangement requires a total of i:.3 trees (49 pennanent 
trees and 84 fillers), the latter 85 trees (49 permanmt 

40 



W^- 







i^^w^^msM^u^'^tmi^ii^ismmitm^nm^msf 



THE HEXAGONAL PLAN 4j 

trees and 36 ailers.) The former total is too large ; the 
iatter ,s the one to be ix^commcncled. The fillers are 
generally some variety of apple that comes into bearing 
at an earlier age than the permanent orchard trees The 

Wealt^hy, Wmesap, and Missouri Pippin, or some .'riet; 
elly and for camimg). In British Columbia it is one of 
Wealthy ''' ^^""^ '" ^'""''""^^ '''''*'^' ^^''^^^"^^ °^' 
Hexagonal PLAN.-This is the arrangement which 
allows he g.eatest number of permanent orchard trees 
to be planted to the acre-namely, 56. The fillers are 
placed alternately with the permanent trees in each row • 
this gives 56 trees. Sometimes a row consisting entirely of' 
fillers IS put in between every two rows of the permanent 
trees which calls for 42 more fillers. This makes a total 
of 56 permanent trees and 98 fillers to each acre, or 15i 
trees altogether. This is too large a number, and it would 
be better to omit the alternate rows of fillers. Even 
then the acre would accommodate 112 trees 

Instead of one of the varieties of apples mentioned 
above, peaches or dwarf pears are preferred by some for 
fillers. In each case the relative distances remain the 
same. 

By planting a permanent tree at one end of the first 
row, and putting a filler opposite to it as the first tree in 
the second row, j-ou will find that your or^'l r ^ ..-hen 
finally thinned out, has its trees arranged hexagonally 
or in diamond fashion. 

Teebs ,or PLANTiNO.-lf a trcc is improperly planted, 

6 






lasff^m^wt T£ m\'^.R>."- 



42 



PLANTING— METHODS AND PROCESSES 



It. 



f 



•j; 



It will in all probability show the ill-effects durin- the 
whole of its existence. Hence it is a matter of the uLost 
importance that the planting should be properly done 

Plant no trees except one-year-old trees, though you 
may have them grafted or budded on two-year-old roots 
And It IS wise to buy your trees, provided they are satis- 
factory, from the nearest local nursery. N^t only are 
such trees better acclimatized, but they have a shorter 
journey to make, and hence run less risk of suffering 
damage or injury, besides which they travel for less cost 

T"" ""•?,?" ^'°" '''^^''^' ^'°"' *^^« ^^^' ^^'^^ in at once 
in the middle of the orchard they an. to be planted in. 

On no account must the roots be exposed to the risk of 
drying out, a danger they are especially liable to in the 
parching atmosphere of the interior of British Colmnbia 

In order to make sure that you shall have your rows 
straight. It IS well to peg out beforehand the places in 
he first row which the trees are to occupy. Then, if you 
keep your distances true, your trees will all come into 
their proper places in the other rows, and all your rows 
will be symmetrical and mathematically exact 

To insure the better fertilization or pollenization of 
the blossoms, it is advisable not to plant a solid mass of 
any one variety, but to plant two to four rows of each 
variety in succession. 

Process of PLAKTmG.-Takc a piece of flat board 
6 feet lung and 4 inches wide. Cut a small notch in each 
end, and a bigger notch half-way along one side. Fit 
this bigger notch aromid the peg that marks where the 
tree IS to go. Put a smaller peg in each of the smaller 
notches at the ends of the boa^d. Take the board awav 
also the peg for the tree, leaving the two smaller pegV 



"tMmsi^^^m^;. 



^Aj^msf.^^'r^m^sm'. ;m 



IMPORTANT DETAILS 43 

At the point wher^ the peg for the tr^e stood, dig a hole 
2 ^et across, puttmg the top spit of soil on one side by 

ThJn '"1 ? "'' *^' ''''^ '" '^' b««°"^ «f the hole 
Ihen, and not until then, take your tree out of the ground 
vhe e ,t has been heeled in. Hold it up in your lef 
hand, and w,th a pair of secateurs, or pruning shear 
pru«e the roots, cutting away all broken or inju,.d fibre ' 
and shortening back those which ai^ excessively Ion.' 
Cut at a slant and in such a direction that, when the tre^e 
stands upnght m the hole, the cut surfaces will all lie flat 
on he earth Place the tree in the hole, spread out the 
roots well all round, and see that none are doubled up or 
.ng across the others-both these points are important 
_ nul gently shake in some of the top spit after breaking 
"P fine Work this well in amongst the roots. Cover 

entlv '' T. '''"'' '' ' "^^"^ °^" ««• '^^^'^ the tree 
gently up and down, and then tread the soil firmly round 

it takmg care not to break or injure any of the roots. 
1 ill up the hole with soil, and tread firmly again When 
you have finished, the little tree should be about 4 inches 
deeper m the ground than it was when it stood in the 
nursery row. This is to allow of the soil settling. Finally 
it you are planting in the spring, cut off the top of the' 
young tree at a distance of 18 inches to 2 feet from tho 
ground level, cutting in a slanting direction up to a good 
iat bud, so as to leave the bud at the highest tip of the 
.young tree. If you are planting in the autumn or fall 
leave this cutting until the following spring. 

Do not give the young tree any manure of any kind 
unless you are planting in ground which has not been 
properly broken and properly prepared. In the latter 
case spnnkle a little-say a tablespoonful. not more-of 



n 



ii lii 






'\W^' 



Il 



M 



44 PLANTING — METHODS AND PROCESSES 

nitrate of soda around the tree, keeping it away from the 
bark. On no account put any water in the hole with the 
young tree ; though, if the ground is excessively dry, you 
may pour one or two bucketfuls of water over the roots 
when you have finished the planting. 

All through the operations be particularly careful you 
do not let the roots of the young trees dry out. A few 
minutes' exposure will suffice to spoil them. It is a 
good plan to have all the holes dug first, or, at any rate, 
a large number at a time. And even then, as you lay 
the trees down whilst j^ou are actually engaged in plant- 
ing one, keep the others covered with a damp bag or sack. 
Fall v. Spring Planting.— One sometimes hears 
discussions as to the respective advantages of fall and 
spring planting. As an academic question, there can 
hardly exist a doubt that it is preferable to plant in the 
fall. This gives the young tree a chance to make an 
early start in the following spring before the hot days 
of summer arrive. The fall is the season, too, when the 
majority of fruit-growers have the most time to spare, 
and the planting can consequently be done more leisurely, 
and, what is of the first importance, more thoroughly. 
The principal objection to fall planting is that the young 
fruit-trees do i.ot become sufficiently dormant to lift in 
the nursery until the season is too late ; and to plant young 
trees which are not dormant is folly. These remarks 
tell with double force if the trees are being purchased 
from a nursery situated in a warmer or milder locality 
than that in which the orchard is to be made. Hence 
the practice almost universally followed is to plant in 
spring, and as early as possible in the spring. 






1^- 



CHAPTER Vlll ' 

CULTIVATION AND MANAGE3IENT 

In the interior of British Columbia the climate is dry. 
As a rule very little rain falls during the summer. The 
orchards depend to a very great extent for their moisturc 
upon the snowfall of winter. As the snow melts— and it 
goes on melting on the mountains right into July— the 
water trickles down the mountain-side, giving rise to 
the " seepage " nourishment of the orchard. 

Moisture Conservation.— One of the principal aims 

of the orchard-owner, as, indeed, of every agriculturist 

and farmer in Western and Middle America, is to take 

such measures and cany out such operations as shall to 

the fullest extent preserve this moisture, and prevent it 

*rora going to waste through evaporation. One way to 

secure this end is to keep the surface during the growing 

season constantly in a fine, powdery state, as fine as 

finest dust. If this surface soil gets dry, it will be all 

the better ; it will keep the soil underneath moist. The 

roots always work into the moist soil, and if the soil is 

dry on the top and moist underneath, the roots will go 

down and not come up. If they come up, they will be 

liable to get scorched by the hot sun. 

Begin to cultivate, using a Kimball cultivator or a fine- 
toothed light harrow, as soon as the ground is dry enough 

45 



!:i 






' ^1 .A.. V 



46 CULTIVATION AND MANAGEMENT 

to boar the hoi-se in the spring ; that is, a few days after 
the snow has disappeared. Do not wait until the surface 
begnis to get really dry. Your object is to pifserv^e eveiy 
drop of moisture that is alawly present in the groun.l 
Continue to cultivate at inlen-als of a week or ten days 
and cultivate always after every shower of rain, until the' 
middle of August. Then stop ; d.) not cultivate any more 
Rams generally come in September, and if you continue 
to cultivate after the middle of August, you will keep the 
trees growing, and have soft ^^ood-tllat is, twigs-for 
the wmter. By stopping cultivation in the middle of 
August you arrest growth, or nearly so, and give the 
3-oung wood an opportunity to become thoroughly 
ripened ; and it is in that condition that it will best stand 
the sharp frosts of winter. If the trees grow too 
vigorously and make too much wood, grow a crop of 
clover or other cover crop between them. 

MuLCHiNG.-Sometimes, when it is inexpedient or 
difficult to cultivate so often as once a week or once every 
ten days, it will help to conserve the moisture if you 
spread a mulch of cut green clover or other fora-e crop 
round the bottom of the young titles. If you should for 
any reason leave a mulch round your trees all the winter 
bo careful to draw the material 4 or 5 inches back from 
the stem of the tree. Rabbits and mice often take 
shelter in such mulch material during the very coldest 
weather, and it is then a temptation to them to gnaw the 
bark of the young tree. The tree will not suffer by having 
the earth exposed just around its base. 

If you plough early in the spring, as you probably will 
for the benefit of the crops which are to be grown between 



j^ .r '<ii#?-*cl 



1 ' v'.i4k 



■f7'«^Al¥'«T?J©«'''^Tr-ii!»?: 



MANFRnTO 

the trees, do not plouch decn in t.lo 

^rtr ;r-^ ■-" ™~ eLtoC 

plough deeper. ^ ^ "'''^' °^ ^^"''so, 

You may continue to grow cron«, in K«4 

MANUHiNa.-An orcliarcl in cood trim ..'-.i .1 . 
hcalil.i, „„,i ■ *> "^""' "'"' tile trees 

ftcalthy and vigorous, and bearing well but not ill 

hoavdy, should be manui^d every seeond -ear ei 1 , 
applying farmyard manu,,, or by phSul LI ^ 

Of green manur. and letting it rot^e^fn^d TlZ 
trees need prineipally tl.reo manurial elLnts: n^" t^ 

=r^i:?^i:-rx:^v" 

readily absorb what they want I .1 '"" 

p.oughed in in f.e «P^ing^;:l3t^,,r■ y XiZ 

sunnlv i„ .1, ;'"''""»"*'"'«' manures naturally 

3a ed bv T, T *'"^ ""'^' '^ -PPlemented o' 
replaced by artiflcial manuK'S in varying proportions . 

the t,«es appear to need them. If ou apply artTi 

manures only, a fuU dressing of each of the tSe Int 

would. ,.s a general rule, re.u.re per acre . nitra etf tl 



III 



. V at"*-/ 5c»»^ : mt!-^i 



48 



CULTIVATION AND MANAGEMENT 



200 pounds ; muriato or sulphate of potash, 250 pounds; 
and raw ground hone, 400 pounds. These arc the 
amoiuits for mature trees ; for young trees the amounts 
must be proportionately decreased. When leguminous 
cover crops are grown every year, the nitrate of soda 
may bo very greatly reduced or omitted altogether. 
These fertilizers shouid bo applied early in the spring, 
just when growth is commencing. Be careful not to 
overdo tne manuring with chemical fertilizers ; an exces- 
sive use of them is apt to burn the humus out of the soil. 
Cover Crops.— Cover crops not only conserve the 
moisture, but they supply humus or decayed vegetable 
matter, a property with which British Columbia orchard 
soils are not too heavily charged as a rule. 

Early in September, or as soon as the fall rains begin to 
come, sow a crop of hairy vetches, red clover, cow peas, 
rape seed, or other pod-bearing plant, and let it stay until 
the following spring, when it should be ploughed in. The 
qua.itities of seed to si are— of red clover, 20 pounds to 
the acre ; and of ha vetches, 50 pounds. It is here 
that the full advantage comes in of sowing a crop of 
clover on the land before the trees are planted at all. 
When they are planted after such a r»rop, the clover is 
there all ready down below where the roots go, and they 
get the benefit of it from the start. It is not easy to 
realize the immense difference there is between the growth 
of trees so planted and the gro\vi;h of trees planted with- 
out a crop of this kind. As a rule, it is not advisable to 
pasture these green crops. The crop must be ploughed 
in if it is to serve the purpose for which it was sown. 
Nor must the green crop be allowed to grow too rank and 



IMPROVING THE SOIL 49 

coarse I,of„rc> being ploughed in. If it gc-is too heavy in 
bulk It will be too long in decaying, and instead of hold- 
ing the moisture round the roots for the trees' advantage 
It will use up the moisture itself, and so ml. the trt«e. 

It may be said generally of British Cohrnbia orchard 
«oils that they possess plenty of natural fertility but 
require to have the soil u.,rked so as to bring it into a 
ht mechanical condition for releasing the elements of 
fertility contained. This is Ix^st accomplished by the 
methods I have just outlined-diligent surface cultiva- 
tion during the summer, followed by a coyer crop in the 
tall, and the ploughing in of the coyer crop in the sprint. 
This will not only store up a sufficient supply of plant 
food, but will prepare that plant food in such a way as 
tJic tree can most readily and most easily absorb it. 

For the sake of completeness, it ought to be stated 
that some authorities recommend clean cultivation 
throughout the year. Where it is possible to obtain a 
sufficient supply of farmyard manure, that system may 
with advantage be followed. But where that class of 
manure cannot be conveniently obtained in sufficient 
quantity, and this is generally the case on the small 
holdings throughout British Cohmibia, the best method 
of applying fertilizers to the soil is by means of the cover 
crop of clover, alfalfa, or vetches, ploughed in periodically 
m spring. If that is done whenever the trees require it, 
there is no need to apply artificial or chemical manures! 
The system of clean cultivation during the summer, 
followed by a cover crop in the fall and winter, wiU not 
only keep right the texture and quality of the soil, but 
will give the trees all the fertilizing agents they want. 

7 



' 



A t 



ft.M 




CHAPTER IX 



PKUNINO 



•' NO Tools.— For pnining f niit-iR-cs yon do not need 
le. The only tools 3011 need an) a pair of secateurs 
or pnming-shears. a double-faced i)nmiisi,' saw (for cut- 
ting thick branches), a pair of long-handled shears for 
tall branches, a pair of ordinary steps, and a small pot 
of thick white paint. 

In broad, general terms pruning means cutting t. iruit- 
tree with the view of (1) shaping it, (2) increasing its 
area of wood, (3) increasing the quantity of its crop of 
fruit. 

Pruning for Shape.— As regards the shaping of the 
tree, the first three or four years are those of the most 
importance. The first pruning a young fruit-tree receives 
18 the cutting off of the top at the time it is planted. This 
will give you what is known as a low-headed tree. At 
present this is the form of tree that is being most advo- 
cated in the West of America, from British Columbia to 
Oregon. At the same time you will find some orchard 
men who advocate heading the young tree at 3J or 4 feet 
above the ground. There is something to be said for 
both methods. With a low-headed tree you can more 
readily prune, spray, thin and gather tl e fruit. You do 
not nquire to use long ladders, but can generally perfonn 




K'l ' 'V 



T 



1 



THE QUESTION OF SHAPE 51 

all the oj>eration8 (,f the orchard from the ground, or at 
the mo8t from a long pair of steps. And if von don't 
use long ladder., you ean g. t uomen and girls to pick (he 
ruit. und their labour in cheaper than that c.f an ahle- 
bodied man. The advocate of the higher-lu uded tree in 
Mdlt.enced chiefly by the greater ease with ^Inch I e can 
get his implements underneath the trees uhen eultivutin" 
hi« orchard. On the other hand, implements an. no^v 
jnade uhich will project to one side underneath a lo- • 
headed tree whilst the hc,r.se walks quite- clear <.f the 
branehes. I^csides this, when the ti-c>es beg •> to bear 
even though headed high, the weight of H.o cr . l,en,l,s 
them down, so thnt it is dillicult lor a horse to move 
underneath them witiiout breaking thom with its head 
On the whole, it seems best to keep the trees low, and 
never let the horse go underneath the branehes 

Assuming, then, that you decide to keep Aour trees 
low. there are two shapes you may aim io' prouuce • 
(1 ) The pyramid, g-owing highest in the centre ; and (>) the 
vase, growing hollow in the centiv. In British Columbia 
the majority of orchar.'.t. pn^fer the former, the pvra- 
malal shape. The vase shr.pe is admirable in a climate 
which does not get a superabundance of sunshine as for 
instance, in England. But in Britisli Columl,ia the'sun 
shines fn-quently ,0 hot and with such a buniin- force 
that, unless the middle of tlie trt>e is protected to some 
extent with leafage, it is apt to suffer from sunseald. 
I mit as well as bark. 

First Year's PRUNixc-One year after plant in. 

comes lJif> nn'"i'i"' uli-^'^ rf -o +' • , 

"" i 'o' "iii^a 01 ad tiic prunuigs that iht- 

tree undergoes is probably the most important for dcter- 



U; 



fi 



62 



PRUNING 



ii 1 



mining its future shape. It is then that the branches 
must be selected which are to form the framework or 
scaff.)lding of the future tree. For this purpose choose 
four or maybe five of the httle side branches which have 
developed during the course of the first year, selecting 
them as far as possible 6 to 8 inches apart, and nicely 
distributed all round the future trunk of the tree. Do not 
on any account have them all starting at the same place. 
If you do they are pretty sure to split apart when the 
tree begins to carry heavy loads of fjuit. Cut off all 
other side branches, and shorten back the four or 
five that you keep to about two-thirds of their length, 
or say to a length of 12 to 16 inches. If the branches 
grow fairly upright, cut just above an eye that looks 
towards the outside of the tree. If they grow flat and 
almost horizontal, cut to an eye that looks towards the 
inside of the tree. A good example of a tree which must 
always be cut to an outer eye, because of its very upright 
growth, is Northern Spy. Of those with a spreading 
habit, and which consequently need to be cut to an inner 
eye, it will suffice to mention Jonathan. In pruning 
small wood of one year's growth, always cut it upwards 
and aslant, just below a bud in such a Avay that the bud 
sits at the top of the slant. 

Second Year's Pruning.— In pruning the second 
spring after planting you proceed pretty much as in 
pruning the first spring, except that the branches you 
select for keeping will now be placed on the four or five 
side branches which you kept the year before. In re- 
moving all other side branches cut to a length of about 
2 inches. Some authority g leave as ^-auch as 4 to 5 inches ; 



SECOND year's PRUNING 53 

but in British Columbia, where the trees naturally pro- 
ciu^e such heavy crops that we have to thin severely, 
and even then after thinning often require to support the 
hmbs of the trees with numerous props, it would appear 
to be the more economical plan to keep your fruit spurs 
systematically short, and about 2 inches is a convenient 
length. At this time you will begin to notice a certain 
number of short twigs sticking out stiffly from nearly 
all the branches. These are fmit spurs, and must not be 
cut off. At this time, also, you will find that at the end 
of the main branches in many cases three smaller branches 
have been developed during the past season. If all thive 
look as though they would grow naturaUy towards the 
outside of the tree, they may all be left. Only, in that 
case, shorten back the two at the side to about 10 or 
12 mche.< each, and leave the middle one, called the 
leader, 15 inches or so in length. It is important that 
the leader should in all cases be left an inch or two longer 
than its own side branches, because the sap flows to the 
outermost tips, and they are the ones which must grow 
fastest, or rather grow longest, if the tree is to preserve 
its proper shape. 

Should you at a later date discover that you have left 
too much wood-that is to say, too many hmb*-in your 
tree, and find you need to cut some of them out, then cut 
them off close up against the branch from which they 
spring, and avoid leaving a short stub sticking out like 
a knob. If the branch you thus cut off exceeds an inch 
m diameter, it is best to paint it with thick white paint, 
so as to protect the wound from the ill-effects of the 
weather and from possible injury by insects. 



54 



PRUNING 



I 



i 



[J 

- i 



When pruning older trees, one should always at the 
same time cut out any branches which m-.y be broken 
or injured, or which may be chafing against other 
branches. All such wounds open the door to attacks of 
fungoid and insect enemies. 

Time to Prune.— Pruning should be done as near to 
the bursting of the leaf as possible, but it must be begun 
sufficiently early so as to admit of the whole of the work 
being completely finished before a speck of green leaf 
appears. March is, as a rule, the month in which to 
prune. But pruning may be done in January and 
February, though in that case there are two or three 
practical rules to be observed. Do not prune when the 
thermometer registers more than 10 degrees of frost. If 
you have to prune thus early trees which are naturally 
tender, or which occupy an exposed position, do not cut 
just above a bud, but cut right through the bud, so as to 
destroy it, and select for destruction in this wa^ a bud 
which grows in a direction different from the bud you 
want to keep— namely, the bud next below it. By doing 
this you will leave a short stub of wood beyond the last 
uninjured bud. This stub will probably die, and so 
leave the real extremity of the branch at the highest 
bud which is not destroyed. The bud you want to study 
and choose at an inner or outward position, as the case 
may be, is this bud. 

Hummer Frunikg.— Pnming in March (or February 
or January) is called " winter pruning." Its principal 
result or effect is generally considered to be the promotion 
of wood growth— that is, the building up and develop- 
ment of the tree. But there is also summer pruning, 



SUMMER PRUNING 55 

the object of which is generally considered to be the 
formation of fruit buds as distinguished from wood buds 
Summer pruning should be done as a rule in June, July 
or the first half of August, when the tips of the shoots 
are so tender that they can be pinched out with the thumb 
and finger. If the operation is performed just at the 
right time-and the essence and virtue of the operation 
lie just m this, doing it at the right time-the little 
branch will produce fruit spurs and fruit buds, and so 
not waste energy in producing wood which will have to be 
cut away in the winter pruning. Just what makes a tree 
fit for summer pruning is a matter that can only be 
learned from practical observation and actual practice. 

In certain districts the practice of summer pruning 
IS being discountenanced by experienced growers. * 



CHAPTER X 



M A 



ll'i 



SPRAYING — THINNING 

Spraying. — Spraying — at all events, the first spraying of 

the season, with lime and sulphur — should, like pruning, 

be performed when the tree is dormant, and before any 

sign of a green leaf appears. We spray our fruit-trees, 

partly to prevent the attacks of fungus and insect 

enemies, and partly to administer a tonic to the trees. 

If we had any fungus or insect pests to fight against 

— fortunatel}', we have none worth speaking about in 

British Columbia — we should have to spray in order to 

de«itroy them. Many growers spray only once, with the 

lime and sulphur solution, mixing 1 gallon of the spray 

with 11, 10, or even 9 gallons of water, applying the 

spray warm when the trees are dormant, before ever a 

sign of greenness appears. The spray must be thrown 

on to the trees with some sort of a force-pimip, and 

must be made as fjie as mist. It is of the utmost 

importance that each tree be sprayed thoroughly, everj' 

twig and branch being well covered all over. If not 

done with perfect thoroughness, spraying fails of its 

object, and might as well be left alone. 

Immediately this spraying is finished, be sure to rake 

carefully together all the prunings — that is, the twigs and 

branches which have been cut off in priming — and burn 

them. 

56 



"^ 



SPRAY INGREDIENTS 57 

Spraying Fobmul^.-Fov combating the diseases and 
mseot and fungoid pests which occur in British Columbia 
orchards the fruit-grower will find the following formula^ 
are all that ho requires to know, as thev will meet all 
and every sort of trouble that has hitherto been detected 
in the orchards of the province : 

i. Lime-Sulphur Solntion.~This can be bought readv- 
made m quantities from 5 gallons up to 40 odd <rallons 
at a cost of something like 10 to 15 cents per gallon The' 
Niagara spray and Pendray's are both satisfactory Jf 
the frmt-grower prefers to make his own spray, tJie in- 
gredients are : Unslaked lime, 40 pound. ; sublimed sul- 
phur, 20 pounds ; coarse salt, 10 pounds ; water, 50 gallons. 
Each of the solids should be mixed separately with hot 
water, then poured together into one vessel, each beino- 
strained through wire gauze. Even then the pump and 
nozzles will clog. Pendray's spray may be applied luke- 
warm ; home-made spray should be put on at a tempera- 
ture of 130° F. 

2 Double Bordeaux Mixtur -The ingredients ai^- 
Suphate of copper, or bluesto. ., 8 to 10 pounds ; un- 
slaked hme, 8 pounds ; water, 50 gallons. Pour boihn. 
water over the bluestone to dissolve it, and use a wooden'' 
not a metal, vessel. Make it up to 25 gallons. Dissolve 
the hme separately, also with hot water, and also make 
up to 25 gallons. Then into a third vessel pour the two 
mixtures together simultaneously, so as to mix them well 
This spray must be used within twenty-four hours. After 
that time it begins to decompose. For leaf-eating insects 
add to this spray Paris green at the rate of 1 ounc6 to 
10 gallons of the lime-bluestone solution. Keep well 



i^' 



58 



SPRAYING — THINNING 



V 1 

li 4 



Stirred after the Paris green is put in, as it will not 
dissolve. 

3. Arsenate of Lead.— With 40 gallons of water mix 
3 pounds of arsenate of lead, which is a paste. Use rain- 
water, and mix thoroughly. 

4. Whale Oil Solution.— Whale oil soap, 7 pounds ; 
quassia chips, 8 pounds ; water, 100 gallons. Boil the 
quassia chips for one hour ; dissolve the soap in hot water. 
►Strain each, then mix together and make u- to 100 gallons. 

The purposes for which these several spraj's are used 
will bo made plain in the next following chapter. 

Spraying Implements.— For spraying small orchards 
or small trees it is sufficient to use a hand sprayer, a tin 
cylinder some 22 inches long, which a man can sling on 
his back or under his arm. After putting in the spray 
solution, 3'ou pump in air by means of a pump, which 
forms part of the apparatus. This gives a pressure, and 
when you open the valve the liquid spray comes out with 
great force. Its fineness is regulated by the nozzle. It 
is of the utmost importance that all sprays should go on 
to the trees in as fine a mist as possible. That and 
thoroughly covering every part of the tree ar« the secrets 
of success in this operation. 

In larger orchards and for larger trees some sort of 
spray pump fixed on wheels, or a sort of sleigh for steep 
slopes, must be used. One man drives the horse and 
pumps, a second man holds the rubber pipe with the 
nozzle on it and directs the spray. A bamboo rod can 
be attached to the end of the rubber hose to give a more 
efficient control over the direction of the spray, and to 
enable the operator to reach the inner recesses of larger 



'?-M' 



THOXING 



69 



trees. In large orchards, and for applying spray for 
codling moth, it is necessary or desirable to use some 
form of force-pump, driven generally by a gasolene engine. 
TiUNNiNo.— In British Columbia orchards this is almost 
mvariably a necessary operation . The first thinnini? should 
be done in June. In j-ears of good crops a .socond thin- 
ning will have to be done in July, and maybe a third in 
August. At the first tliimiing take oil all badly shaped 
and all faulty fruit, and do not leave three apples any- 
where that hang in one cluster. Leave at most two, 
though one of these may have to be taken of! at the secon(l 
thinning. When the work is finally coiipletod the 
separate apples should, on reaching full size, each hang 
1 or 2 inches distant from its nearest noighbours on each 
side of it. But if the tree is carrj ing only a light load, 
two apples may be left on the same branch, provided each 
has plenty of room to develop to full size uninjured by 
the other. Judicious thinning will not diminish the total 
weight of the crop at the time of gathering the fruit, 
but, on the contrary, tends to increase its weight. It 
has the great advantage of leaving fruit of a more 
uniform size, and larger, and with a much smaller 
percentage of faulty apples. In those cases where th 
middle one of the three apples which grow nearest the tip 
of a branch presents a different appearance from its two 
companions, as in Mcintosh Red, it is, as a general rule, 
this middle apple which will give the typical shape for the 
variety. But do not hesitate to take it off if i; alrt^ady 
shows any defect. 



i. 



!i 



CHAPTER XI 

INSECT PESTS — DISEASES — REMEDIES 

As yet Ihe orchards of British Columbia are coniuicndably 
free from the worst and most dangerous enemies of the 
insect world. Neither San Jose scale nor the apple-wonn 
(codling moth) has got a footing in the province. Certain 
fungoid diseases and certain diseases which appear to owe 
their origin to peculiar conditions of the weather in spring 
arc the principal enemies that the British Columbia 
orchardist has to fight against. 

Insect Pests. — The Tent Caterpillar makes his appear- 
ance almost every j-ear in some part or other of the 
orchard. You will detect him by his whitish-looking net 
or web hanging near the end of a twig, or by observing 
all the leaves eaten off on some slender branch. As 
soon as you see this web, cut it off with all the 
caterpill-'.i's — smallish black creatures v.ilh copper}- 
yellow spots all over them — inside it and buni it. You 
must cut it off early in the : lorning or else after sunset. 
During the day man^- of ' : catcipillars will be away 
from home foraging amongst the branches of the tree. 

Oyster-Shell Scale, or Bark Louse, is a minute organism 
shaped like a tiny sickle which sticks like a limpet close to 
the bark of the tree. The insects themselves are hidden 
under the shells, and are only active for about three weeks 

60 



«P 



«P 



CUTWORMS 



61 



in tlu) >ear. A thorough spraying with the lime-sulpliur 
solution to the strcngth of 1 gallon of solution in 9 gallons 
of water at the usual time of using this spray, followed 
after a few days by a second application of 1 gallon of 
solution to 10 gallons of Mater, will put an end to this 
trouble. 

For various kinds of apple-worms and any cater|)illars 
or other leaf-eating insects, use the ai-senate of lead 
spray. Use this immediately after the blossoms fall. 
Be careful to fill the calyx cup, wlure the blossom was, 
quite full, and to cover completely every bit of the j^cuuig 
fruit and foliage. If a second spraying is needed, do it 
ton days later. For green fly, brown fly, black fly, and 
all other kinds of aphides, use the whale oil soap, generally 
in July. You can readily detect their presence by ob- 
serving the leaves beginning to curl at the tips of the 
branches, and by the foliage generally losing freshness, 
becoming sticky and shiny, and appearing to shrivel 
in size. 

Cutivorms. — These creatures do not as a mle attack 
fruit-trees, though occasionally, I believe, they do climb 
into quite small trees. Tiiey arc smooth-skinned, dark 
brown caterpillars, about an inch long, which begin their 
fierce dcpi-edations about May, and continue them for 
that month, for June, and sometimes on into July. 
They arc very destructive, especially to crops growing on 
newly broken ground. They feed by night, and during 
the day hide in the ground at the foot of the plant they 
are preying upon, an inch or so below the surface. The 
crops they love most to attack are young cabbages, 
cauliliowers and similar greens, tomatoes, lettuce, and 



^^^^^^^^R^ 



mnem 






I 







62 



INSECT TESTS — DISEASES— REMEDIKS 



»o forth. On the other hand, they arc easily iheckcd. 
Bran, poisoned with Paris green and sweetened with 
molasses, syrup, or sugar and water, has an irresistible 
attraction for them. Mix 5 poimds of sugar, dissolved in 
water, and 1 pound of Paris green in 40 pounds of bran, 
and stir until it will just stick together in lumps. Then 
place a tablespoonful near each plant attacked, and 
R'lief will come very 8|x*e{lily. Poidtry must be kept 
away from this ; if they eat it, they, too, will bo poisoned. 

FuNQOiD Diseases. — The principal diseases of this kind 
that attack apples in the interior of British Columl»ia 
are scab and peach-leaf curl. Both can be controlled 
by using the Bordeaux mixture (bluestone and lime). 

Other Diseases. — Under this heading we may group 
Baldwin spot, water core, and anthracnose or canker. 
Baldwin spot, or dry rot, is that disease in which little 
round depressions of a deeper colour than the apple 
generally appear in the skin just about the time the 
fruit is ripening. Their specific cause is not known, 
but they may be kept in check by proper cultivation 
and regulation of the crop. Spraying has no effect. The 
same remarks apply to water core, or the waxy, watery 
appearance which the core presents sometimes, especially 
in certain eariier varieties, such as Red Astrakhan and 
Ribston, and in Jonathan if left on the tree too long 
after it is fully ripe. Some authorities state that water 
core only comes when the fruit is not gathered soon 
enough. 

Anthracnose, or canker, is closely allied to sun-scald, 
which appears when, owing to faulty nutrition or some 
iuterfert'iice with the flow of the sap, the sun scalds the 



m 



R^^K^-W 



CANKER — 8UN-80A;.D — GUMMOSIS 



0.1 



bark and sets up decay. Sun-scald often causes the hark 
to split and crack open. This in especially true of fruit- 
trees planted at high alHludes owing to the very hot days 
followed by cold nights. Anthracnoso does its deadly 
mischief underneath llie bark, and causes a hollow spare 
to come between the bark and the stem. If this is rut 
open, it will bo foimd to contain a semi-liquid gum or 
sticky exudation. This must be very- carefully scrajxd 
away and very caivfully burned, and the woimd painted 
with liquid corrosive sublimate. 

Cherry-trees are very subjcot to an exudation of gum, 
known as gumntosis. This seems to be duo to a variety 
of causes, or at any rate a variety of causes contribute to 
its appearance. If the exuding gum is hard, it will not 
do much real harm. If, however, it is soft and gum- 
like in consistency, it should be carefully scraped away 
and burned, and the wounda painted with corrosive 
sublimate. 



'4 



1 a 






CHAITKK Ml 




IRRIGATION 

Shall I buy irrigated or non- irrigated land ? Whi'>h 
gives the better results i are questions whieh almost 
every man who contemplates growing fniit in British 
Columbia puts to himself sooner or later. And they 
cause him as much cogitation, maybe more, as docs the 
problem as to whether he shall buy improved or un- 
improved fruit land. 

This is a thorny and delicate subject, and no matter 
how you treat it, you are pretty certain to offend one side 
or the other. To avoid friction as far as possible, 1 will 
confine myself to quoting the opinions of American ex- 
perts, and to citing no facts except such as cannot bo 
disputed. In the first place, I will quote two of the fore- 
most horticultural authorities of the American West as 
to the real necessity for artificial irrigation. Professors 
C. I. Lewis and W. H. Wicks, of the State Agricultural 
Experiment Station at Corvallis, Oregon, said, writing on 
" Orchard Management " in the American journal Better 
Fruit, for December, 1907 (p. 11) : "In certain locutions, 
like Rogue River and Hood River, we find just as fine 
fruit grown without irrigation as with it, although cer- 
tain areas doubtless would be benefited by irrigation. 
On moderate heavy loams we find that we can grow 

64 



^iii^V ^^v-i .Jac?; :.:.vl'**v:;.A^ibfewi/,. 



'"* i- 



EXPERT OPINION 



05 



applcR that keep longer tlum <m fight loanw uhcn- applos 
naturally mature more rapuUy, and coiiMcquontly Imvo a 
shorter life. This fact hu» led some to eoncludo that tho 
irrigated apple is a superior keci)er. On the contrary, 
whr!>« fruit is heavily irrij?atcd, vvo find that sizo is 
gam* I, hut flavour, arorna, keeping and shippini? qiinlitios 
are Hacrificed. . . . Before irrigating on a large scalo, 
he iniro you need it. Many times more thorough cultiva- 
tion is what is needed ; if you do irrigate, rememher that 
(ii'> problemf! •cac med with irrigating your fniit arc 
vaHtl\ l.lTerent from those coimeetcd with cereals, forage 
cr«'P^ or ^ .rden truck [vegetables]. You must know 
how much water to apply, when to apply, and tho action 
of water on tree, fruit, and soil. It f.kcs less water if it 
is added in tho form of one or two .o.kI applications. 



.;i'i,n 



Ui. 



1 ■ \ 



■ . rcat number 

xpplicd, say, 

' - tained. At 

'* in the fall, 

e» . 'Ration is 

f'Ugh cultiva- 



thoroughly wetting the soil, tha; 

of times, but in small amoun. 

mostly in July, better all-roui... ,, 

times one would be justified ■•■ . ; 

but not as a general practice. "\ 

resorted to, it should bo followed 

tion. . . . Wherever land is irrigated it sh<juld be well 
uuderdraincd, thus preventing the accumulation of in- 
jurious salts or acids. Irrigation has a tendency to pro- 
long tho growing season, at times producing a secondary 
growth. . . . Whenever this practice of lato irrigation 
is employed, tho twigs and buds do not seem to harden 
properly, and in ease of a hard freeze they are liable to 
be injured, and the result will bo a light apple crop." 

The second authority whom [ will quote is Mr. E. 11. 
Shepard, sometime manager of the Hood River Apple- 



i 



r^^l 



HI 

i 



* 






66 



IBRIOATION 



Growers' Association, now editor of Better Fruit, the best 
horticultural journal published in America that I am 
acquainted with, himself a practical fruit-grower of several 
years' experience, and a very successful exhibitor at the 
principal apple shows during the last half-dozen years or 
so. In the February (1908) issue of his magazine he 
wrote (p. 18) : " In order to get the best results, both as 
to yield and size of fruit, it is necessary to keep the orchard 
under perfect 'Cultivation, so that the soil will be properly 
pulverized. A thorough state of cultivation is necessary 
in order to enable the rootlets to get their food from the 
soil, and it is also necessary in order to conserve the 
moisture, which is absolutely necessary for the growth 
of the tree. Moisture can be supplied by irrigation, but 
while Hood River Valley is blessed with three irrigation 
systems, and therefore has an ample supply of water, 
very little water is brought into our orchards. Most of 
the growers will not wat^^r an orchard until the trees 
come into bearing. We claim the roots go deeper if not 
irrigated, and therefore get a bigger area of soil. After 
an orchard comes into bearing, even then many fruit- 
growers do not irrigate, and few irrigate more than once a 
year. We believe that the less water an apple has, the 
better the flavour will be, and we feci equally convinced 
that the apple that is not irrigated, or only is irrigated 
once during the season, will keep longer than the one 
irrigated more frequently." 

Accepting these statements as true, and they cannot 
well be doubted, it is surely consistent with common 
sense to conclude that, if you can grow your apples with- 
out irrigation, that is the best plan ; but if you have to 



■^ 



THE RIGHT AMOUNT 



67 



depend upon irrigation, then use the water as seldom as 

possible. I would add that each time you do use water, 

use it thoroughly. Do not just wet the surftvce and so 

bring the dehcate fibrous roots up to the top of the ground 

for them to get scorched by the hot sun, but give a 

thorough watering, so that the water will go down below 

the roots, and the roots will go down after the water. 

The real objections which non-irrigating fruit-growers 

have to irrigation is the additional cost it makes to the 

general costs of producing a crop, a charge per acre which 

is imposed for all time to come, without any hope of ever 

getting relief from the burden. Moreover, if there is any 

possibility of the available water-supply running short, 

to that content there exists the possibility of further 

expense having to be incurred in bringing in additional 

supplies, or of the rancher having to go without water 

just at the critical time when ho needs it most. 

But whilst it is better to grow fruit without artificial 
irrigation, it is at the same time wise, even in the non- 
irrigated districts of British Columbia, to make provision, 
by flume or reservoir or well, for a supply of water, 
suitably placed, against the dry months of July and 
August. What may chance to need an application of 
water at that season is not the older and well-established 
trees— they can generally look after themselves without 
artificial irrigation— but the quite joung trees which have 
not yet sent their roots far down into the ground, and 
the surface crops, such as strawberries, clover, potatoes. 
A judicious supply of water given to quite young trees 
in July, and again in August, will keep them moving and 
prevent a check that might bo hurtful to them. You 



Am 



68 



IRRIGATTON 



will remember what Mr. Shepard says just abov^ about 
the contrary practice in the Hood River ; there they do 
not irrigate the yo\mg trees, but they do occasionally 
irrigate the bearing trees. Professor C. I. Lewis tells us 
(loc. cit.) that " in the Grand Ronde Valley young orchards 
up to the time of heavy bearing seem to do very well 
without any irrigation, but heavy bearing orchards seem 
to need several irrigations in order to mature a heavy 
crop of large apples. In the Williamette Valley cultiva- 
tion is all that is required." 

The danger which chiefly threatens when irrigation is 
used in excess is the accumulation of alkali or injurious 
salts in the upper layers of the soil. To counteract this, 
drainage is necessary, to wash out and so cleanse the soil. 
If the soil gets packed and hard, ar it tends to do under 
constant irrigation, the land must be ploughed de«p in 

the spring. 

The fact of the matter appears to be that in British 
C'ohmibia, equally whether your orchard is situated in 
an irrigation or in a non-irrigation district, it is wise to 
have command of water against the height of the summer. 
The costs of inigation water, therefore, equally whether 
you pay a water tax amiually or put in your own works 
(well, dam, pipe, flume, or what not), must be regarded 
as an insurance against adverse seasons. If, then, you 
are able to command a sufficient supply of water precisely 
at the time you want it, and if you possess the necessary 
experience to use it aright, you need virtually be under 
no anxiety as to a crop failure. 

The sole objection to irrigation that remains is the 
inalienable nature of the burden, which, because of the 



1 



■p 



EQUALLY GOOD RESULTS 



69 



very fact that it can never be escaped from, makes it in 
the long run more costly to grow fruit in that way than it 
is to grow it in a non-irrigated district, where the expense 
of providing a reserve supply of water is an expense 
incurred once for all. and an expense which requires an 
incomparably smaller amount of capital, as the works 
for storage and distribution are always on a verj- much 
smaller and less elaborate scale. The raii<^her should 
place his main reliance upon thorough and propcrlv 
executed cultivation, no matter wliich kind of listrict 
his orchard is situated in. Fruit • f oqually nne quality 
is grown under both sets of conditions, as the results at 
the principal great apple shows clearly and unmis- 
takably demonstrate, especially when the extent of the 
areas drawn upon in the two different kinds cf oichaniinr 
are properly taken into account and duly allowed for. 



fW^^B 



CHAPTER XIII 



){ 



ej4.» 



MARKETING 

The producing of apples is a comparatively easy accom- 
plishment, as any even the most neglected and uncared 
for of English orchards can sufficiently demonstrate. But 
to produce year after year a sufficient crop of apples of 
really good quality, equal to the best recognized com- 
mercial standards, is a very different thing. No art can 
be more difficult, no art requires a higher degree of skill 
or a more alert and more flexible intelligence. No art 
requires closer and prompter attention, and more effec- 
tive application of labour ; and, also, no art is more 
fascinating. But when you have grown apples that will 
bear the scrutiny of the modem commercial standards, 
you still have facing you what is undoubtedly the most 
difficult and delicate part of the fruit- rancher's calling. 
You still have to market your crop, by selling it at the 
best price. 

Now, owing to the geographical position of British 
Columbia and the distribution of population over the 
world, this province must of necessity be an exporter. 
The fruit-growers must sell their produce in markets 
which are in many cases thousands of miles distant, and 
in all cases are several hundred miles removed from the 
localities in which their apples are grovn^i. As yet the 

70 




CANADIAN MARKETS 



71 



annual production of the entire province is, compara- 
tively speaking, of no more effect on the volume of the 
world's fruit markets than the outflow of the Mississippi 
18 upon the volume of the Atlantic Ocean. It is per- 
ceptible, it is true, but proportionally it is as nothing in 
amount. 

Markets.— The Canadian prairies are the nearest 
markets— markets which are growing at a wonderfully 
rapid rate both through immigration and through the 
natural increase of the population. And these are markets 
which, owing to the rigorous winter climate that nrevails 
generally, can never expect to be satisfied by local supply. 
Here British Columbia fruit-growers have already gained 
a good footing with their small fruits, such as straw- 
berries and raspberries. But the quantity of apples sent 
mto the prairie provinces from British Columbia is as 
yet extremely small. Nevertheless, such apples as do go 
are beginning to command better prices than the American 
apples which come into competition with them. The 
reason that so few are sent is simply that British Columbia 
does not produce a sufficiently largo quantity. Except 
for the Okanagan Valley, a few localities in the Fraser 
Valley, one or two places on Vancouver Island, and the 
district of Grand Forks, none of the larger fruit-growing 
regions of British Columbia are yet in a position to send 
out a whole carload at one time. The day is fast approach- 
ing, however, when every fruit district and subdistrict 
will be able to do this. It was not until 1903 that the 
first carload of British Columbia apples was sent to 
England. Since then a few, but only a few, tons have 
been sent over every year ; and during the last few years 







72 MARKETING 

small 8hipment8 have gone to Australia, chiefly from the 

Okanagan Valley, and also from Grand Forks. 

At first, as I have alrt^ady said, the fruit-grower uho is 
still new to the business will be wise to sell through h.^ 
local Fruit-Growers' Association. Individuals can and do 
ship out their own produce to the prairie towns ; but they 
need to be sure of their ground, and equally sure of them- 
selves-namely, that they can guarantee nothing but 
perfectly satisfactory fruit, and see that their guarantees 
arc conscientiously carried out. There are no established 
markets in the smaller towns, and customers are obtained 
there only by personal private arrangement. In the 
larger towns there are wholesale fruit dealers and agents to 
whom fruit mav be sent, in some cases to be bought by 
these firms, in^other cases to be sold by them on com- 
mission The firms to whom the fruit is consigned will 
nearly always pay the freight or express charges on 

delivery. 

The Old Country, especially such large towns as 
Loulon, Liverpool. Manchester. Glasgow, and Belfast, 
are all eager to buy British Columbia apples, but it is com- 
paratively few that British Columbia is able to send them. 

Another clamorous customer is Australia. In 1908, 
and again in 1911, she made a legitimate business demand 
for 100,000 boxes of British Columbia apples. On the 
former occasion it was for 100,000 boxes of Wealthy. At 
that date the entire province did not produce 100,000 
boxes of all varieties of apples put together, let alone 
of the one variety of Wealthy. In 1911, British Coluinb. a 
Bent, I believe, something under 5,000 boxes, or not 
one-twentieth of the quantity demanded . 



A GROWING DEMAND 



73 



Almost everywhere throughout the province there is a 
good local demand for fruit, a demand which even now 
has to be met to some extent by importations from the 
outside, chiefly from the United States. The prices which 
rule in these local markets are for the most part higher 
than the prices which British Columbia growers could 
obtain by exporting their fruit. The principal exception 
to this is the very choicest apples, which make con- 
siderably higher prices in the markets of the Old Country. 
Inquiries for British Columbia apples have also been 
made during the last season or two by importers in 
Germany (Hamburg), South Africa (Johannesburg), Hol- 
land, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, China, and Japan. 

With a growing and widespread network of markets 
like this there is no fear of over-production for many 
years to come. In the United States, where the popula- 
tion has grown fast, the total production of apples 
decreased from 69,000,000 barrels (3 bushels in each) 
in 1896 to less than 24,000,000 in 1910. The Americans 
eat per head more apples in the jear than any other 
nation. If the British Columbia fruit-grower will con- 
tinue to be worthy of the expectations that the world 
has of him at the present time, and will aim to pro- 
duce fruit of real sterling excellence, competition, even 
though it grow fast, will not hurt him. It will only serve 
to enliance and set forth in stronger relief the super- 
lative merit of the commodity which his peculiarly happy 
climate enables him to produce. 

Express and Freight. — By freight rates the rail- 
ways in Canada mean the same thing as the English 
railways do when they talk about goods rates. Larger 

lu 



74 



MABKETTNO 






Jift 



! i t 

lb ■ 



if 

u 

i 'J 



consignments, such as potatoes, apples, and any produce 
sold by the carload, would naturally be " shipped," as 
the term is, by freight. Small fruits, and all perishable 
fruits, such as strawberries, are mostly shipped by 
express— that is, by the ordinary passenger trains, and, 
of course, at higher rates. 

Packing.— For the first few years the only fruit which 
the rancher will have to send away will be small fruits. 
Consequently some time must elapse before he needs to 
understand the mysteries of packing apples, pears, pluns, 
or cherries. There will be ample time for him to learn all 
about these operations during the years his trees are 
growing up. He should by all means attend the nearest 
apple-packing class ; by that means he will learn for a 
cost of (at present) $3 all that he will requiixj to know. 
So far these classes have been held at the end of winter. 

Strawberries, gooseberries, red and black currants, 
blackberries, and raspberries, are all packed in exactly the 
same way. They arc gathered into small square chip 
baskets, known as ballets, punnets, cups, and other 
names, and twenty-four of these arc packed in a wooden 
crate for shipment by rail. Except in the case of straw- 
berries, the actual packing is all finished when the fruit is 
placed in the puimct, which must be filled quite full in 
order that it may weigh 1 pound. In the case of straw- 
berries it is usual to arrange the top layer in each punnet 
in regular even rows, hiding all the stalks. This is called 
" facing," and is best done under a roof, out of the hoi 
Bun. In order that room may be left in the punnet for 
this top layer, it is best for the pickers to fill the punnets 
into vv-hich they pick the frait only about three parts full ; 



\Hi 



AN IMPORTANT REGFLATION 



76 



no very Bmall Btrawbcnios must bo put in the punnets. 
All the fruit should be of a fair average size. It is most 
important that the strawberries Hhould stand a few hours 
ill a t'ool place before being placed upon the train, wo 
that the sun's heat may gradually pass out of the fniit. 
The same rule applies to all the small fruitn, and to 
cherries. 

Every box or package of fmit which is offered for sale 
must bear the name and address of the packer or grower 
stamped on it, also the name of the fniit and the de:iigna- 
tion of the grade or quality. Infringement of this regula- 
tion is punishable by a heavy fine. The law is by no 
means a dead-letter. 



I -S 

I 



I 






^1 



i! 



CHAPTER XIV 



GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE 



In so far as the fruit-grower's industry in British Columbia 
i s capable of being influenced by the authorities, he has 
every reason to thank his stars. Not only the Dominion 
Department of Agriculture, but the Provincial Depart- 
ment too, are fully alive to bis interests. Both bodies 
study his needs and strive even to anticipate his \\ant8 
and his requirements. He dcrs not find it necessary to 
be perpetually bombarding them with petitions, repeated 
ad nauseam, before he can procii o even a hearing, 'fre- 
quently he only becomes aware that a certain require- 
ment existed by finding one or the other department 
knocking at his door with the remedy or fulfilment in its 
hand. Special thanks are due to our own Prn\ incial 
Department of Agriculture. No man could be more 
alive to the interests of the tiuit industry- than the present 
Deputy-Minister, Mr. W. E. Scott, in whose hands the 
care of this jt> rticular branch of agriculture in British 
Columbia is placed. He is fully alive to the great 
importance which the industry is destined to have on 
the developTiunt and fortunes of the province, and 
spares no pains to iiorm himself as to the efficacy of 
new methods, n-^ improvements, and new devices, 
lu fact, he is always on the alert to study any project 

76 






INSTRUCTTOX AND ADVICE 



77 



or plan that is calculated to further the progrpss of the 
calling. It IB not altogether a mere figure of Bpecch to 
Bay that, if the rancher only takes advantage of all the 
opportunities which the Provincial Government plact-s 
in his way, ho can obtain a fairly comprehenaive 
horticultural education in the course of a single year. 

Provincial Horticulturists. — In each of the more 
important districts into which the province is divided 
for horticultural purposes Jie Board of Agriculture has 
stationed a trained and expert horticulturist. His duties 
are to lecture on subjects connected with orchards ; to give 
practical demonHtrations in the open air of planting, 
pruning, spraying, and so forth ; to act as judge at local 
fniit shows ; to manage the demonstration orchards (vide 
below) ; and to advise generally on all matters connected 
with horticulture in his district — both advise the growers 
as to how they shall conduct their operations and assist the 
Board of Agriculture by furnishing it with information. 
The number of these officers is being gradually added to 
as the area under orchards extends. At the moment of 
writing there are six of them, stationed respectively at 
Nelson, Grand Forks, Vernon, Kamloops, and Vancouver 
Island, with a general horticulturist at headquarters in 
Victoria. 

Lectures and Demonstrations. — Every winter and 
very frequently in other seasons as well the horticulturists 
and other experts give lectures at quite a large number 
of centres on such subjects as soils, orchard management, 
planting, pruning, spraying, manures, poultry, and so 
on. From time to time distinguished profes. rs of horti- 
culture and fruit-growers of mark fi-om Eaaltni Canada 



MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART 

ANSI ond ISO TEST CHART No 2) 




I.I 



" la III M 



1.8 




^ APPLIED irvMGE Ini 

^S^ 1653 East Main Street 

^mSZ Rochester, New York U609 USA 

'-^S (716) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

^= (716) 288 - 5989 - fax 



78 



GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE 



and the United States are invited to tour the province 
and lecture in the chief fruit-growing districts. All these 
lecturers, even the college professors, are men of the open 
air, not mere students of the desk. They are first and 
foremost practical men. Some of them are actually 
earning their living in the callings abo-it which they are 
engaged to lecture. And along with lectures go demon- 
strations in the orchards themselves, in so far as the season 
is favourable for them. 

Demonstration Trains. — Quite x'ecently the agricul- 
tural authorities of Washington and other American 
States have sent a body of lecturers on a tour round the 
State, who not only talk, but actually demonstrate from 
the train itself by which they travel. They have a fruit- 
tree standing on a flat or open car, which they use to 
illustrate the operations of pruning and spraying, though 
they are quite ready to demonstrate on any tree which 
happens to be growing conveniently near to the spot 
where the train stops. In another car are a good milch 
cow and a beef ox, by means of which the lecturer points 
out the respective merits and desiderata of the two types 
of animal. In another car are poultry ; and in a fourth 
ladies lecture on the various branches of domestic science. 
The British Columbia Board of Agriculture proposes to 
organize a similar travelling school of lecturers for the 
coming summer of 1912. 

Demonstration Orchards. — During 1911 the British 
Columbia Board of Agriculture selected a large number 
of 6-acre orchards all over the province, to be managed 
and cultivated under the supervision of the Provincial 
Horticulturists, and in part at the expense of the Pro- 



^M^m 



ISL^^W 



NO rrNFAIR COMPETITION 



79 



vincial Government, as small model orchards for the 
benefit of the districts in which they are situated. In 
addition to these there is a Dominion Experimental Farm 
of the usual type, in which all branches of agriculture are 
dealt with, situated at Agassiz, in the Upper Fraser River 
Valley. This farm, as well as the principal Experimental 
Farm of the Dominion at Ottawa, distribute seeds of 
vegetables and farm crops gratis in small lots to any farmer 
or rancher who cares to make application for them. 

Farmprs' Ik.'TITutes.— In many of the smaller fruit- 
growing localities the ranchers organize themselves into 
a farmers' institute. To these bodies the Provincial 
Government sends lecturers and issues reports and 
bulletins to the individual members. The members also 
combine to purchase in bulk spraying materials, fruit- 
boxes, manures, and so forth, for distribution amongst 
themselves, thus saving middlemen's profits. 

Government Inspection.— With the view of protect- 
ing the fruit-growers of British Columbia against unfair 
competition, all fruit brought into provincial markets for 
sale is subject to inspection, and condemnation if it fails 
to come up to the standards and requirements of the 
Dominion Fruit Marks Acts. Both Boards of Agricul- 
ture, Dominion and Provincial, carry out the duties of 
inspection, and certainly the regulations are not allowed 
to lie fallow. 

Again, in order to preserve the orchards of the province 
as far as possible free from insect and fungoid pests, all 
nursery stock, of whatever description, is subject to rigid 
and close examination upon its entry into the province. 
Every year many thousands of young fruit-trees are 




?!^rFn;^¥*}S^^^^SS3:^^i^^ 



i 



80 



GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE 



I 



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S 



K 



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5;:| 1 



destroyed a8 being infected. Those which are found free 
from infection are severely fumigated before being scut 
on to their destinations. These measures are applied to 
nursery stock brought into British Cohimbia from other 
provinces of the Dominion equally as to nursery stock 
which is imported from the United States and elsewhere. 

Packing Schools. — Every winter since the winter of 
1909-10 the Provincial Board of Agriculture has held 
apple-packing schools at numerous fruit centn?s in the 
province. In addition to these classes, apple-packing 
contests are held in public at several of the local fruit 
fairs. Two classes of diplomas are issued to the more 
skilled of the pupils who attend these apple-packing 
schools — ordinary diplomas, which certify to the pupil's 
proficiency, and commercial packing diplomas, which not 
only certify to the pupil's proficiency as a pupil, but also 
guarantee that he has packed for at any rate one season 
in a satisfactory way for some well-luiown fruit-grower 
or Fruit-Growers' Association. It makes him, in fact, a 
professional packer. 

Government Grants. — The Government of British 
Columbia is in the happy and probably unique position 
of having an annually increasing surplus of revenue over 
expenditure. This enables it to be ornerous to various 
young industries. Amongst other, .at it benefits sub- 
stantially by direct money grants is the fruit industry. 
Considerable sums are given every year to the fimds for 
providing prizes at the local fruit fairs throughout the 
province. The prizes, which are competed for at the 
apple-paoking contests, are provided by the Department 
of Agriculture. This same Department collects and 



^^SfS*' 



mmc^m i±''m^FjMwm^mM^^' 



mi 



■.jmi-'MS, 



USEFUL PUBLICATIONS 81 

exhibits every year specimens of packed fruit of every 
kind grown within the province, as well as vegetables, 
at the principal fairs all over the Dominion, buying their 
exhibits direct from the growers. It also sends fruit 
almost every year to Britain, exhibiting at the Royal 
Horticultural Society's shows and in the principal to\v'ns 
of the country ; and is also represented at almost eveiy 
other important fruit exhibition throughout the world, 
from New York to Australia. 

Supervision of Industry.— Spraying is enforced 
through the periodical visits of orchard inspectors. 
Proper packing is enforced by another body of inspectors, 
who see that the fruit is properly graded, is quite sound 
and free from defects, is properly packed, and that the 
contents of the boxes correspond accurately to the 
descriptions on the outside. 

Bulletins.— From time to time the Provincial De- 
partment of Agriculture ipsues very valuable bulletins 
on Insect Pests, Varieties to Plant, Poultry, Bee-keeping 
and other subjects useful to the rancher. During the 
fruit season the Dominion Department of Agriculture 
issues every month a brief summary and report of fruit 
prospects in every fruit-growing district throughout the 
country, the information being gathered from numerous 
representative growers in each district. 



11 



m-sm«Li^%M.^ikmf'^m[^ 




CHAPTER XV 

CLIMATE — DOMESTIC DETAILS 

Climate. — Almost everywhere in the interior of the 
province the climate is healthy in the extreme. It is 
chiefly characterizGd by hot dry summers ; cold dry 
winters ; a comparative absence of wind ; and a wide 
daily range of temperature. The days in summer are, 
generally speaking, bright and sunny ; yet, owing to the 
drjTiess of the atmosphere, the heat is seldom close and 
hardly ever oppressive. The nights are invariably cool 
and pleasant. In winter there is a considerable a;nount 
of sunshine. Snow falls, as a rule, shortly before Christ- 
mas, and remains until the middle of March. Although 
there are sno^vfall8 earher, the snow does not as a rule 
stay. Sharp frosts come off and on from October, occa- 
sionally even in September ; but from the middle of 
December to the middle of March the ground is mostly 
frost-bound. The air is usually dry and still, and the cold 
is not felt at all severely, except when a blizzard sets in. 
But blizzards are, happily, rare, the average being two or 
three days a year. When they do blow, ^'le wind is very 
keen and penetrating, and the thermometer nearly always 
drops below zero. At other times the thermometer 
ranges between 32° and about 5'' or 6° F. 
The rainfall, including snowfall, which is calculated at 

82 



tm^wm^M^kmw^f^am^m^^mmk-i^^m^Erd'rm^ms^m ■' ft.'iair^'-T'^i 



HOUSES 



S.I 



the rate of 12 inches of snow for 1 inch of rain, is very 
light all over the interior of the province. In the Okana- 
gan it averages 11 inches; in the Kootenays, 21 to 20 
inches ; on the coast, 60 to 70 inches aruually. 

But in both winter and summer (liorc are abrupt and 
sudden changes of wind and temperature, thnu^Ii these 
changes do not as a nile last very long. The dilleivnco 
bet\\een the thermometer at noon and at the midnight 
following is sometimes aa much as 40° F. The maximum 
record for summer is about 90^ F., and t!io minimum for 
winter ranges from 2° to 26° below 2cro in the fniit- 
growing districts. 

On the Pacific Coast the temperature runs very much 
higher all through tlie year ; the rainfall is very much 
heavier, in some districts verj- heavy indeed (140 inches) ; 
and there is more wind. 

Houses.— Most houses arc built of wood, and covered 
with shingles or slates of sawn cedar. Nearly all are 
provided with verandas, which keep the lower rooms 
cooler in summer. A log house, the chinks between the 
logs plastered with clay or cement, is warm and cosy in 
winter, and cool in summer, and is inexpensive to build. 
Every house should be provided with a good underground 
cellar, cemented if possible, in which to presen-e perish- 
able ioooii and supplies in the winter. If many green 
crops and roots— e.^., potatoes, turnips, carrots, cabbages 
—are grown, it will be necessary to construct an outdoor 
cellar in which to store them during the winter. This is 
best made in an earthen bank, and should be cemented 
inside and covered with earth. 
The houses are heated with stoves, which bum wood, 



y ?.ft?ip's.^©isiwi^ 



84 



CLIMATE — DOMESTIC DETAILS 



[«!^ 



sometimes coal. But the larger houses arc heated by hot 
water, circulating in iron pipes aiicl radiators, or by hot 
air, the furnace being placed in a cellar underneath the 
house. A plant of this kind costs from $500 up. Many 
of the newer houses are provided with one or more open 
hearths. 

Clothing. — People in British Columbia wear pretty 
much the same clothing that they do in the Old Country. 
The principal differences observable are that gloves are 
more generally worn for working both in summer and in 
winter. Broad-brimmed hats are universal in summer, as 
protection against the sun. Leggings are not worn. 

In winter for working amongst the snow the best 
equipment for the feet is thick woollen stockings and 
coarse nibber shoes. Many men wear boots with very 
long tops, reaching half-way up to the knee. A thick 
reefer jacket — a Mackinaw — is preferable to a long, 
heavy overcoat. For travelling in the moimtains in 
winter, snowshoes must be worn. In very sharp frost it 
is desirable to protect the ears with " '^f' sort of lappets. 

It is not advisable for people le^ . ; Old Country 

to bring their household fumitu: ^ them, except, 
majbe, pictures, books, silver, ana .-.xe and bed linen, 
r.ut they should bring plenty of personal clothing, 
especially for winter wear, and a good supply of half- 
worn suits. 



V' ^'-^r-' vtym-jr-i^ar^x^ 



'X n»»i 7 jsmsjkv • c« n v 



.*i'«f....-j 



INDEX 



AoAHsiz, 79 

Air <lrainaKP. - 

Alfalfa, 28, 31 

Alkali soil, disadvantagos of, 10 

Altitude, 6 

Anthracnoso, 62 

Apples, varieties to plant, 36 

Apricots, 39 

Arm8troiij5, 33 

Arrow Lakes, 13 

Aspect, 4 

Australian Jack, 25 

Baldwin spot, 62 
Bark louse, 60 
Better Fruit, 64, 66 
Black currants, 34 
" Black muck." 9 
Blackberries, 34 
Blasting, 25 
Breaking, 27, 46 
Bulletins, official, 81 

Canker, 62 

Capital required, 18 

Carrots, 31 

Castlegar, 29 

Celery, 33 

Chain and pulley tackle, 24 

Charpitting, 26 

Cherries, 39 

Chinese market-gardeners, 32 

Clearing, cost of, 19, 24, 28 

methods of, 22 
Climato, 45, 82 
Clothmg, 84 
Clover, 28, 3i, 46, 48 
Communications, 6 
Co-operation, 17, 79 



86 



Cover crops. 4H 
i Cow- peas, 31. 48 
{ Crops, intermediate. 30 
Cultivation, 45 
Currants, black, 34 
red, 34 
white, 34 
Cutworms, 61 

Demonstration orchar'la, 78 

trains, 78 
Diseases of fruit-trees, 62 

Eggs, 34 
Export advice, 7 

Farmers' Tastitutes, 79 

"Fillers,' 40 

Fires, precautions against forest, 

23 
Fraser Valley. 71 
Fniit-Growera' Associations, 17, 

72 

Gooseberries, 34 
Government assistance, 70 

grants, 80 

inspection, 79, 81 
Grand Forks, 71, 72, 77 
Grapes, 39 

Gravel soil, undesirabiiity of, 9 
Oummoais, 63 

Hairv vetches, 28, 31, 48 
Hardpan, 2, 10 
Hay, 32 

Horticulturists, provincial, 77 
Houses, 83 
cost of, 19 



n 



I :1 



86 



INDEX 



InBwt posts and mea«uroH af^ainat, 

57, W) 
InHp<»ction, Govornraont. 1\), Hi 
IiiHtruction hy oxiwrta, 77 
Irrigation, <54 

charges, 20, 07 

Jam factories, 34 

Kamloops, 77 
Kolowna, 31 
Kootonay, East, 29 
Kootonay, West, 29 

Land, prices of fruit, 17 

rolativo advantagOH of im- 
proved and unimproved, 14 
relative advantajros of irri- 
gated aud non-nrigated, C4 
terms of payment, 18 
Levelling, 27 

Machinery, 22. 2-t 
Mangolds, 31 
Manure, use of, 43, 47 
Markets, 15, 71 
Moisture conservation, 45 
Mulching, 46 

Nelson, 77 

Okanagan Lake, 9 

Valley, 12, 18, 28, o ■., 39, 71, 
72 
Onions, 31 
Oyster-shell scale, 60 

I'acking, 74 

schools, 80 
Peaches, 39 
Pervrs, 39 
Pests, and meeisures against, 57, 

60 
Piling, 23 
Wanting, 40 
Ploughing, 27, 46 
Plums, 39 



Potatoes, 30 
Poultry, 34 
Pruning, time for, 54 

tooUi, 50 
Publications, useful. Hi 

Quinces, 39 

Rainfall, 82 
Ra|)o seed, 48 
Raspborrioa, 33 
Rod currants, 34 
Rocks, 10 
Rossland Valley, 6 

Scott, Mr. W. E., 70 
Shapmg the true, 50 
Slashing, 23 
Small fruits. 33 
Soil drainajre, 4 
Soils, 1, 8, 27, 49 
Spraying, 56, 61 
Strawberries, 33 
Stump burning, 26 

pullers, 22, 24, 2!» 
Summorland, 9 
Sun-scald, 61. 62 

Taxation, 20 

Tent caterpillars, 60 

Thinning, 59 

Timber, 13 

Trees, when to buy, 42 

Turnips, 31 

Upper Fraser River Valley, 79 

Vancouver Island, 71, 77 
Vegetables, when to g. jw, 32 
Vernon, 77 
Vetches, 28, 31, 48 
Victoria, 77 

Water, 6, 12 
core, 62 
White carrante, 34 
Wind-breaks, 5 



BILLING AND SONS, LTD., PBINTCRS, OUILDFOBD 



m 
III 



'.^•l_.. 



Thia blank leaf to he cut away. 



TYPICAL IRUIT-RANCH 



ON THH WKST AHM Ol" 



KOOTENAY LAKE 




CITY OF NELSON 

A MILE DISTANT 

ACROSS THE.tWATER 



1 

i 



i 



Mi 



.'i 






ii 



B. C. Fruit Lands. 



LARGE BLOCKS ONLY. 

We buy and sell large tracts of 
Fruit Lands in all parts of 
British Columbia. If looking 
for a wholesale proposition, 
write us. 



a 



MONEY INVESTED, 

We can place your funds on 
first mortgages to net you 

7% and 8%. 



Royal Financial Corporation, Ltd., 

417, Pender Street, Vancouver, B.C. 



•,-.*a.7i»i-.„> 



WATERS & PASCOE, 

Builders and 
Con tractors J, 

Kootenay Lake Sash & Door Factory, 

FRONT STREET, NELSON, B.C. 

On C.P.R. Track. One Minute from Boats. 

SPFXIAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO LAKE -SIDE 
AND OUT-OF-TOWN RESIDENCES AND OTHER 

BUILDINGS. 



We will give an estimate on Building complete, 
or will supply the Lumber, Mouldings, Shingles. 
Lath, Window Frames and Sash, Doors, 
Bricks. Lime, Cement, Plaster or other 
Materials, or any portion of the same, to 
enable you to build yourself. 



GLASS. HOTBED. AND GREENHOUSE STOCK 
SUPPLIED AND MADE TO ORDER. 






If you are Interested 

In Complete 

Animal Fertilizers 

for Orchards, Farms, or other purposes, don't fail to 

WRITE TO US FOR PRICES AND DESCRIPTIVE 

PAMPHLETS before purchasing. 

No other Fertilizers on the Market 

^vill give you the san\e 

Quick and Uniformly Satisfactory Returns 

that invariably result from the use of our Fertilizer 
products. Manufactured solely by 

P. BURNS © CO., Ltd., Calgary, Alberta. 

Branches in all Principal Points in Alberta and British 
Columbia. Write for Prices. 



I 






P:' ! 



MAKING GOOD IN CANADA 

By FREDERICK A. TALBOT 

Aiilhor of " The New Garden of Canada, " 
"The Making of a Great L'anadiaji Railway," etc. 

Crown 8vo., cloth. Price Is. 6d. net (by post Is. 9d.) 

NOTE. — The general impression prevails that in Canada, beyond the 
confines of the Great Cities, the average man has the choice of only two 
occupations -farming and mining. This is a fatal mistake, as this book 
shows. It introduces the reader to a score of other varied means of 
earning a livelihood, not entailing precarious existence, but callings in 
which good wages may be earned, so that excellent chances are extended 
to obtain a financial foundation necessary to secure a good foothold upon 
the ladder of success. The employments described range from packing, 
freighting, cord-wood cutting, frontier-road building, trapping, cooking 
and prospecting, to openings in the wilds for the professions of engineering, 
veterinary surgery, medicine, journalism, etc. 

PUBLLSHKI) BY ADAM & CHARLES BLACK 
4, 5 & SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W. 



li 



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